Enzymes in Beer-Understanding and Manipulating Enzymes to Make Better Beer

Enzymes in beer, as defined by Gregory J. Noonan in his book Brewing Lager Beer, “are complex, protein-based biological catalysts that induce reactions between substances without being changed by the reaction or appearing in its end product.” They are activated and deactivated under certain conditions.  Manipulating these conditions is what mashing is all about. Where do Enzymes in … Read more

Beer Wort Production

The process of making beer wort (unfermented beer) encompasses several steps. The first of these is mashing. The primary goal of mashing is to finish the breakdown of proteins and starches that the maltster began when he produced the malt.  In days past, when malts were less modified, the mashing process was accomplished by using several … Read more

Is adjusting Mash pH the key to more consistent beer?

Adjusting mash pH is fairly involved, but you can determine what the pH will be using your water’s residual alkalinity. By calculating theresidual alkalinity, using inputs from your water analysis, it can be converted to a relative pH value. Basically, 10 degrees of residual alkalinity equals 0.3 pH units. The equation begins with what the … Read more

Mash Alkalinity, Residual Alkalinity and Mash pH

  Your mash alkalinity is a measurement of the mash’s ability to buffer, or resist, attempts to lower its pH. It does this with the bicarbonate ions and, to some extent, the carbonate and hydroxide ions in solution. All three of these ions, bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxide, react with hydrogen to reduce acidity (raise pH). If you … Read more

Cereal Mash-brewing with adjuncts

Cereal Mash Techniques Why learn how to do a cereal mash? Because when you brew American lagers or other beers requiring large amounts of adjuncts, you may need to perform a separate mash on theadjuncts to break them down and convert the starches to fermentable sugars. Both rice and corn are made mostly of starch … Read more