When you create a starter for your home brew, you’re essentially giving the yeast a head start so you can maximize its impact on pitching rate when you add it to your wort, but it has to be suited to the volume and the gravity of the beer you intend to make.
This means that you can’t approach your starter willy nilly, you have to consider certain factors in order to tailor it to your desired final product, and one such factor is the size of the starter.
So, without further ado, let’s discuss how you can confidently settle on a yeast starter size for whatever sudsy wonder you’ve been dreaming of!
What Yeast Starter Size Do Experts Recommend?
Generally speaking, most brewing dynamos agree that 2 liters is the optimal volume of a yeast starter, and I happened to agree, but this isn’t necessarily always the case.
The trick is to do away with generalities when brewing beer, as the devil really is in the details.
As I said a moment ago, you should tailor your yeast starter to the beer you intend to make.
For particularly small batches – we’re talking 1 to 3 gallons – you can absolutely make a masterpiece beer with a 1-liter starter crafted with liquid yeast, so don’t break out that beefy bucket just yet, pard!
Other times, you’ll need a lot more than a 2-liter yeast starter; it all depends on your goals.
Does Starter Size Really Matter?
Although the size of your starter is indeed critical to your beer baby, it’s not actually the most essential aspect of a yeast starter.
More important is the propagation of as many yeast cells as possible. It’s no use concocting a large volume starter if it’s not a habitable environment for yeast cells; however, it is true that size can have a seismic impact on the success of propagation.
So, in a nutshell, yes, size really does matter, but only as a secondary factor in relation to the more important factor, yeast cell reproduction.
How Does Starter Size Impact Yeast Propagation?
Imagine you have a packet of yeast containing between 60 and 120 billion cells.
Using a 1 liter (.26 gallon) starter will double that count in round about 24 hours, but in ideal conditions, a 2 liter (.52 gallon) starter could cultivate 150% of your initial cell-count.
Taking things further only improves propagation potential. For instance, a 3-liter (.79 gal.) starter could produce 3 times the original cell-count.
Essentially, as a living organism, yeast needs room and resources to develop.
In smaller starters, they run out of nutrients quite quickly, limiting cell reproduction, but going too big with the same amount of yeast can be catastrophic.
A larger starter can put a lot of stress on yeast, which will limit stunt propagation.
And if you’re brewing a small batch, galvanizing the yeast count in your starter by doubling up can also be detrimental, as too much yeast can strip the subtleties of a beer’s character.
When Should You Go Big?
The golden rule of yeast starters is to go big when you’re aiming for one or both of two things…
- You’re crafting a larger batch — 2 liters will be great for a 4–5-gallon batch, but larger batches will require larger starters.
- You’re crafting a high-gravity batch.
What Does Gravity Mean In Brewing?
For the uninitiated, the term “gravity” has a slightly different meaning in the context of home brewing, so move over Issac Newton and take your apple with you — This is serious stuff!
When a brewer says gravity, they’re referring specifically to the amount of dissolved solids in water, and when it comes to beer, those solids are always going to be sugars.
As I’m sure you’re aware, these sugars are consumed by the yeast to produce everybody’s favorite liquid candy, beer, so, needless to say, gravity is pretty important.
Typically expressed as a whole number followed by three fractions after the decimal, an OG (original gravity) reading is taken prior to pitching the yeast to give us an estimate of the eventual alcohol content of our brew.
Why Do You Need A Bigger Yeast Starter For High-Gravity Beers?
Thankfully, there are no complicated ideas to wrestle with here… it’s all very simple!
For a higher alcohol content, we need a stacked OG, which, as you know, means we’ll need a high sugar content to begin with.
However, what good is an ocean of dissolved sugar if we don’t have enough yeast cells to gobble it up and convert it into sweet, sweet alcohol?
The larger yeast starter ensures that we have enough of these little microbes to devour the veritable sugar feast and produce a beer that could knock your socks off in a couple of glugs — Nice!
You see, it doesn’t matter if you’ve got a relatively small batch planned, if you want it to be a powerful brew, you’ll need the larger starter.
Why Do You Need A Larger Yeast Starter For Bigger Batches?
Brewing large batches of beer follows the same principles. Although it won’t be quite as concentrated as a high-gravity brew, large batches will still have a boosted sugar content by merit of their sheer volume.
In light of this, once again, we need more yeast to snack on the sugar surplus and craft our final product.
How Do I Know What Specific Yeast Starter Size I’ll Need?
Once you’ve got a few brews under your belt (and down your gullet), you’ll start to develop a sixth sense for yeast starter size, but until you develop this sudsy superpower, I’d recommend simply using an online calculator.
There are a number of fantastic starter calculators strewn across the web. All you have to do is provide some basic information such as intended batch volume and ABV, etc., and you’ll have your answer delivered to you in seconds.
Deciding on a yeast starter size always comes down to two fundamentals… the volume of your brew, and the OG of your brew.
As mentioned above, an online calculator can do your calculations for you if you’re looking for specifics, but don’t be afraid to experiment a little — Experimentation is a large part of the home brewing appeal!