Hops Reference Page, Everything You Need to Know

Beer Hops Reference Guide For The Homebrewer

Hops (Humulus Lupulus), apart from balancing the sweetness of the malts and other sugars in your beer through bitterness, impart aroma and flavor and inhibit the growth of bacteria in wort and beer. 

Hops is considered by many to be an herb.  Brewing is not the only thing this little plant is known for, but for now, we’ll concentrate on its characteristics in beer.

Close-up of Hop Pellets

Only the female flower from the hops plant is used to flavor beer. Humulus Lupulus comes in several forms. The most popular is hop pellets. These are the finely ground cones that have been compressed into tablets resembling rabbit food. They are processed to remove the non-resinous plant material. A pound is concentrated into 10-12 oz. of pellets.

hop plugs

Hop plugs are the whole hop cones that have been dried and compressed into a plug. Some people swear that they impart a better aroma and flavor than pellets, but the jury is still out. More plugs are required for bittering than pellets due to reduced surface area.

Dry hops in a pint glass

Purchase your hops at MoreBeer.com

Whole hops are the dried hop cones. These are also said to impart a better overall flavor and aroma to your beer. Again, more whole hops is required for bittering than pelletized hops. Whole hops can also refer to fresh beer hops, but to differentiate between the two, many brewers will call whole hops that have not been dried “fresh hops”.

And finally hop extracts are the liquid essence of the hop cones. The cones are processes with solvents to remove the bittering essence of the hop resins. Their main advantage is storage space for the large breweries. They get much more alpha acids per square foot of warehouse space by using hop extracts. Hops keep much better when vacuum sealed in an air-tight bag and kept refrigerated.

There are several ways to get hop flavor, aroma and bitterness into your finished beer. The first,in order of the brewing process, is called First Wort Hopping (FWH). FWH is the practice of adding your hops to the kettle and then beginning your sparge on top of them. They stay in the kettle for the entire sparge where there are many complex reactions that take place. 

The water coming out of the HLT is usually around 168°F (75°C). The process of FWH is supposed to give you hop bitterness, aroma and flavors that you cannot obtain by any other means. This is debatable and I’ll leave it up to you to try it or not. For the most part, hops are added in the kettle during the boil.

The Bittering Hop Addition is usually added with 60 minutes left in the boil, although with some extremely high IBU IPAs such as those that Dogfish Head Brewery make, the bittering can begin at 90 minutes and continue throughout the boil. But for most of us, the 60 minute addition will give us plenty of bittering from the hops. 

This is usually done with high alpha acid hops since these are primarily bittering hops anyway (although there are plenty of high alpha acid hops with wonderful flavor and aroma qualities). The higher the alpha acids in your hops, the less you have to add to attain a specific IBU level. This is desired if the residual flavors that result from the bittering hops are compatible with the beer style or the other hops in your recipe.

An example of this would be to add Magnum hops with an alpha acid content in the 12-14% range. Since it is derived from Hallertau stock and is considered a Hallertau hybrid, the residual flavors would match those of the Hallertau family.

If you are making a German beer which requires a moderate level of bittering without a lot of hop flavors and aromas, Magnum would be a good choice because it would reduce your hop mass in the kettle and at the same time, would resemble a beer made with LOTS of Hallertau used for bittering. You can add different bittering hops to provide complexity.

The next type of hop addition is the Flavor Hop Addition and is generally added between 5-30 minutes. It’s a balancing act and the closer to 30 minutes you add the hops, the more bittering and less flavor you will get. Conversely, the closer to 5 minutes you add the hops, the more flavor and less bittering you will get. There is a lot of overlap here, just like the enzyme temperature ranges. You will always get some bittering, no matter when you add the hops and you will always get some flavor and aroma, no matter when you add the hops. It’s just a matter of degree. 

You have to think of it just like you do for your saccharification rest. You will get alpha-amylase working in the beta-amylase ranges and beta-amylase working in the alpha-amylase temperature range. You can only pick the degree to which you want these enzymes, and hops, to work. The enzyme temperature, or hop kettle addition times, have been worked out countless thousands of times and the results are predictable.

Another way in which hops are added is called the Aroma Hop Addition.Hops are added between 5 minutes and knockout (turning off your heat source under the kettle). The closer to knockout you add, the more aroma you will get and less flavor, etc. 

You can find much information online or in brewing books about what is going on chemically during these hop additions. Just remember the general hop addition guidelines and you will understand all that you need to know to design a beer that falls within a style’s IBU range. 

One last method of adding hops to your beer is called Dry Hopping.  To learn more about dry hopping your beer, click here. Dry hopping is used to impart aroma to your beer. A small amount of hops are added during primary or secondary fermentation, and since there is no heat applied, you generally only get aroma from this addition. 

The aroma type hops are usually used. Most dry hopping takes place in the secondary fermenter. This allows you to reuse the yeast cake from primary without all the hop mass being added to the new beer as well. Another reason to add during secondary is so that the CO2 generated during fermentation won’t drive off, or scrub, the hop aroma from the beer.

There is another method (device) for adding hops to the kettle that is called a Hop Back. A hop back is a small container, like a mason jar, which has an inlet and outlet. The outlet is fitted with some sort of filter like as stainless steel scrubber (scrubbie). 

The hop back is placed in the line going to the counterflow chiller or plate chiller and filled with hop plugs or whole hops (no pellets). The whole hops act as a filter bed and the hot wort which passes over the hops extracts the volatile aromatics from the hops. Since the hop back is sealed and there is no place for the aromatics to go but into the hot wort, and since the hot wort is cooled quickly, the volatile aromatics stay in solution. It works very well as a means of getting a lot of hop aroma into your beer.  Check out  these instructions on making a hop back.  

Try to add hops from the region your beer originated from. If you are brewing an English bitter, East Kent Goldings will be appropriate. For German beers, any of the noble hops will be traditional, and for American beers, the citrusy American hops should be used. You will have points deducted in competition by using American hops in a German, Belgian, or English beer.

I have tried to include appropriate beer styles with each hop’s profile. Look at recipes in books or online to see which hops are used. If you aren’t interested in competitions, or brewing to style, then feel free to experiment. If you like the beer you made, then it’s a winning homebrew. But, if you are interested in brewing to style and entering homebrew competitions to obtain feedback on your beers, then you will need to brew with the hops most often used for that style.

I gathered as much information on each hop as I could find. As with anything else online, there are differing opinions on what constitutes possible hop substitutions.

Sometimes people have different impressions of how a particular hop may taste or of the hop’s aroma characteristics. I have included as much information as possible so you can make decisions on what each hop offers.

The information was gathered form the following sources:  Yakimachief.com, MoreBeer.com, hopunion-varity-databook.pdf, USAHops.org, wikipedia.org, highgravitybrew.com, brew-dudes.com, ebrew.com, Austin Homebrew Supply, Northern Brewer Homebrew Supply, and MidwestSupplies.com

I will add new hops as time goes by and more information about some of the newer hops as that information is published.

Hops growing


Updated 8-1-2020


Bittering hops derived from Wye Challenger. Good high-alpha bittering hops. Use Admiral as the bittering hop in most British styles as long as due care is taken with the quantities employed. Exhibits a typical english hop aroma mixed with orange and citrus, and a citrusy orange flavor. Dispute over the actual aroma qualities of Admiral, some say you should always use it in combination with aroma hops as it has very little aroma of its own. Can be used as a substitute for Target with smoother bittering and a more pleasant aroma. Typical Beer Styles: English IPA, American Pale Ale and IPA, most other English ales and American versions of English Ales (American Brown Ale sounds good), possibly Belgian Ales Substitutions: Target, Northdown, Challenger 

Origin: United Kingdom
Type: Bittering 
Alpha: 14.8% 
Beta: 5.6% 
Hop Stability Index: 15.0% per 6 mths


Ahtanum is an aroma/flavoring cultivar bred by Yakima Chief Ranches. Its name comes from the area near Yakima where the first hop farm was established in 1869 by Charles Carpenter. It is similar to Cascade or Amarillo. It has a citrus and floral character and piney or earth notes. Its low alpha acids make Ahtanum a good choice for a flavor addition when you do not want to impart much bitterness. Possible Substitutions: Cascade, Amarillo. Beer styles that can be brewed with Ahtanum include American APA, American IPA and light Lagers. 

Alpha Acids 5.7 – 6.3%
Beta Acids 5 – 6.5%
Co-Humulone 30 – 35% of alpha acids
Storageability Fair to good
Total Oil 0.8 – 1.2 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 50 – 55% of whole oil
Humulene 16 – 20% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 9 – 12% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil


Amarillo is an aroma-type cultivar of recent origin, discovered and introduced by Virgil Gamache Farms Inc. It was discovered as a mutation. Amarillo has moderate bitterness with a spicy, noble aroma. They are used for bittering and/or finishing any style of ale, but are especially appropriate for American style ales. You can’t grow it yourself because the rhizomes are not available. The plant is patented and only grown by the farm that discovered it. The aroma has been described as being flowery, spicy and citrus-like with a distinct orange bouquet. Many describe the flavor as a definite “grapefruit” note. 

Alpha Acids 8 – 11%
Beta Acids 6 – 7%
Co-Humulone 21 – 24 of alpha acids
Storageability Average
Total Oil 1.5 – 1.9 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 68 – 70% of whole oil
Humulene 9 – 11% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 2 – 4% of whole oil
Farnesene 2 – 4% of whole oil


Aroma profile: Earthy, Citrus Spicy, Herbal and Green.   Aramis is an aroma hop from the Alsace region in France. It was crossed in 2002.  It is a product of Strisselspalt and Whitbread Golding.  It has Strisselspalt’s excellent aromas while with a higher oil and alpha content, providing a more plentiful and stable bittering quality.  It is sweet and spicy, citrusy and herby. The measure of its aroma and alpha characteristics make it appropriate for any and all kettle stages. Aramis is the first variety from the Comptoir Agricole breeding program.
Substitutes: Willamette, Challenger, Ahtanum™, Strisselspalter, Centennial, Chinook, Hallertau, Tettnang
Appropriate Beer Styles: Pilsner, Lager, Wheat, Saison, India Pale Ale, Belgian Ales, Pale Ale, Porter

Alpha Acid     7.9 – 8.3%
Beta Acid       3.8 – 4.5%
Co-humulone 20 – 21%
Total Oil    1.2 – 1.6 mL/100g
Myrcene   39 – 41% of total oil
Caryophyllene    7.3 – 7.5% of total oil
Farnesene    2 – 4% of total oil
Humulene    20.9 – 21.1% of total oil
Geraniol    0 – 0% of total oil


Apollo is a newer super high-alpha variety with a low cohumulone level that makes it an excellent bittering hop. Used toward the end of the boil it can contribute flavors and aromas of citrus, grapefruit, orange, pine, resin, and cannabis. Recommended for use in Pale Ales, Extra Pale Ales, and IPAs. Also, note that this hop stores extremely well which makes it an ideal hop for you buy and store on hand.

Hop Statistics
Alpha Acids: 15.0 – 19.0%
Beta Acids: 5.5 – 8.0%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 1.8 – 3.5
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 24 – 28%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 1.5 – 2.5
Storage(% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68° F) 80 – 90%
Similar Hop Varieties: Bravo, Nugget, Columbus


Aurora is a diploid hybrid Super Styrian variety.  It is one of two distinct varieties being produced in Slovenia. It was developed as a seedling of Northern Brewer. Aurora’s aroma comes from its balance of essential oils. With nearly twice the alpha acid content as Styrian Golding, another primary Slovenian hop, Aurora is spicy, herbal and moderately bittering. Many reviews say Aurora hops make a beer that is pleasantly hoppy and velvety smooth. 
Substitutes: Styrian Golding, Northern Brewer
Appropriate Beer Styles: American Pale Ale, Dark Lager

Also Known As: Super Styrian
Characteristics  Spicy 
Purpose Bittering & Aroma 
Alpha Acid Composition 7%-12% 
Beta Acid Composition 2.7%-5% 
Co-Humulone Composition 22%-26% 
Country Slovenia
Total Oil Composition 0.9-1.8 mL/100g 
Myrcene Oil Composition 51% 
Humulene Oil Composition 17%-25% 
Caryophyllene Oil 5%-9% 
Farnesene Oil 5%-10% 

Azacca ®Azacca ® hops are named after the Haitian god of agriculture.  Azacca is one of a new brood of dwarf bittering hops.  It is descended directly from Toyomidori,  Azacca’s greater parentage also includes Summit and Northern Brewer. It is considered by many as being well suited to the IPA style.

Even with its high alpha acids, Azacca still works well as a dual-use hop, giving off a pleasant mix of tropical fruits kissed and citrus. On the palate this hop is particularly spicy, with mango, pineapple and some pine-like and tangerine qualities. Despite being a US hop, it has been likened in nature to some New Zealand-bred varieties.

Alpha: 14-16%
Beta: 4.0-5.5%
Co-Hum: 38-45%
Total Oil: 1.6-2.5 ml/100g
Myrcene: 46-55% of total oils
Caryoph: 8-12% of total oils
Humulene: 14-18% of total oils
Farnesene: <1% of total oils

This new dual purpose hop was grown at Puterbaugh Farms in Washington. Tested by Dr. Shellhammer from OSU, he noted it as a very clean hop with a very orange, slight grapefruit, tropical pineapple, strawberry, and melon aroma. Give this hop a try in your next pale ale.

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 9 – 10%
Beta Acids:  N/A
Alpha-Beta Ratio:  N/A 
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): N/A
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried:  N/A
Storage(% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68° F): N/A
Similar Hop Varieties: N/A

Flavor and Aroma-Citrus, Fruity, Tropical 
Alpha Acids-Average 
Use-Dual Purpose 
Total Oil Content-Average


Diploid hybrid Bobek features a pleasant floral aroma with pine overtones. It was bred in its native Zalec region of Slovenia alongside Blisk and Buket.  Bobek was an attempt to create both high alpha and good aroma in one cultivar. Bobek is not being commercially produced at this time. Its parents are Northern Brewer and a Slovenian male.  It is considered a world-renowned couplet with moderate bitterness.
Substitutes Fuggle, Willamette, Styrian Golding 
Appropriate Beer Styles: English Ale, Extra Special Bitter, Lager, Pilsner

Also Known As Styrian Golding B, Styrian Bobek 
Characteristics Pleasant aroma, pine 
Purpose Bittering & Aroma 
Alpha Acid Composition 3.5%-9.3% 
Beta Acid Composition 4%-6.6% 
Co-Humulone Composition 26%-31% 
Total Oil Composition 0.7-4 mL/100g 
Myrcene Oil Composition 30%-63% 
Humulene Oil Composition 12%-19% 
Caryophyllene Oil 4%-6% Farnesene Oil 3%-7%
Country Slovenia.

Bramling Cross

Origin: Bred at Wye in the 1920,s from a Bramling (a traditional Golding variety) and a male seedling of the Manitoban wild hop.

Aroma Distinctive and pleasant
Alpha-Acids 5.0 – 7.0%
Cohumulone 33 – 35% of alpha-acids
Beta-Acids 2.3 – 3.2%
Xanthohumol Typically 0.18%
Hop Oils: Total Oil 0.7 – 1.0% v/w
Myrcene 36%
Humulene 31%
Caryophyllene 16%
Farnesene 0.2%
Linalool N/A

Brewing Character: Provides distinctive, fruity, blackcurrant or lemon flavor notes. Often used to produce specialty or new beers.


Bravo (Hopsteiner 0146) is a second generation high-alpha variety that was developed by the Hopsteiner Breeding Program and released in 2006. Bravo is an excellent bittering hop that provides pleasant fruity and floral aroma characteristics. 

Alpha Acids 14.5 – 17.5%
Beta Acids 3.0 – 5.0%
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids) 29.0 – 34.0%
Total Oils (Mls. per 100 grams dried hops) 1.6 – 2.4
Myrcene (as % of other oils) 25.0 – 50.0%
Caryophyllene (as % of other oils) 10.0 – 12.0%
Humulene (as % of other oils) 18.0 – 20.0%
Farnesene (as % of other oils) <1.0%
Storage (% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 20° C) 60 – 70%
Possible Substitutions CTZ (Columbus, Tomahawk, or Zeus), Magnum, Nugget.


A British bittering hop developed in 1919. Both Brewer’s Gold and Bullion are seedlings of BB1 (found wild in Manitoba). It’s an English/wild Canadian cross. Many modern high alpha hops were developed from Brewer’s Gold. It has a resiny, spicy aroma/flavor with hints of black currant and a pungent English character. Possible Substitutions: Northdown and Bullion. Typical Beer Styles: Ale, Pilsners & Lambic.

Lupulin Unknown
Aroma Blackcurrant, fruity, spicy
Alpha Acids 8 – 10% w/w
Beta Acids 3.5 – 4.5% w/w
Co-Humulone 40 – 48% of alpha acids
Storageability Poor
Total Oil 2.0 – 2.4 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 37 – 40% of whole oil
Humulene 29 – 31% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 7 – 7.5% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil


Pedigree: Raised in 1919 in England from a wild Manitoban female crossed with an English male hop Growth Habit Vigorous and tends to be bushy if too many vines are trained.

Luplin Abundant and dark yellow in color
Aroma Intense, black current aroma
Alpha Acids 6.5 – 9.0%
Beta Acids 5.0 – 6.0%
Co-Humulone 35 – 40% of alpha acids
Storageability 40 – 50% of alpha acids remaining after six (6) months storage at room temperature.
Total Oil 2.0 – 3.0 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 45 – 55% of whole oil
Humulene 23 – 30% of whole oil
Caryphyllene 9 – 11% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil

General Trade Perception: A bittering hop with a pronounced American hop aroma Possible Substitutions include: Columbus, Northern Brewer, German Brewer’s Gold. Beer Styles IPA, ESB, Stout. Other Information: With Brewer’s Gold, Bullion is one of the earliest high alpha hops in the world. Now largely superseded by bitter types with less characteristic aromas. Less than 100 acres now grown in the U.S.. There are many recipes using this hop found in older brewing publications. As a result, get many requests to use this hop. Many brewers believe this hop no longer is grown, but this is not the case.


A new American high alpha hop, Calypso is also heavily used for its soft aromatics. You’ll get a pleasantly fruity aroma of apple, pear, and citrus that adds a crisp flavor to Pale Ales, IPAs, and Stouts. You will also get some tropical fruit flavors. 
Hop Statistics
Alpha Acids: 12 – 14%
Beta Acids: 5 – 6%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 2 – 2.8
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 40 – 42%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried:1.6 – 2.5
Storage(% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68° F) 65 – 70%
Similar Hop Varieties:NA


Cascade is an aroma-type cultivar which originated as the first commercial hop from the USDA-ARS breeding program. It was bred in 1956 but not released for cultivation until 1972. It reached its peak in 1975 when it produced 13.3% of the total American crop. It was obtained through open pollination of a Fuggle seedling, the seedling derived from crosses between Fuggle and the Russian hop Serebrianker. A very popular U.S. variety with well-balanced bittering potential. It is the most popular hop with the craft-brewing industry. Not used much by major breweries. Good for dry-hopping. It has a moderate bitterness level and fragrant, flowery, spicy and citrusy aroma. It can have a grapefruit flavor. Cascade is often used in highly hopped West Coast ales that have a citrus-floral hop character. Possible Substitutions: Centennial and Amarillo, or Columbus. Commercial Example: Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Anchor Liberty Ale & Old Foghorn.

Alpha Acids 4.5 – 7.0%
Beta Acids 4.5 – 7.0%
Co-Humulone 33 – 40% of alpha acids
Storageability 48 – 52% of alpha acids after six (6) months storage at 20ºC
Total Oil 0.8 – 1.5mls/100 grams
Myrcene 45 – 60% of whole oil
Humulene 10 – 16% of whole oil
Caryphyllene 3 – 6% of whole oil
Farnesene 4 – 8% of whole 


The appropriately named Cashmere hop adds a silky smooth taste to all kinds of beers. Though this varietal is new to the market, having been released by Washington State University in 2013, it is quickly growing in popularity. A product of parents Cascade and Northern Brewer, the Cashmere hop has a unique aroma of herbal, spicy and melon with citrus fruits.  Cashmere is a good dual-purpose hop that exhibits a smooth bitterness.  It is mildly aromatic with a subtle herbal bouquet.  With a higher alpha acid content than Cascade, this dual-purpose hop has a smooth bitterness, but really shines as a late addition hop when used at knock out, whirlpool, or dry hopping.

Draft Magazine says, “This was the most unusual hop, and definitely the crowd favorite.  Tropical coconut, peach and tangerine filled out the aroma, while a similar flavor profile paired coconut, melon, tangerine and lemongrass.”   

Style suited for? IPA all the way. Pair this with exotic Mosaic for an absolute tropical hop bomb.

Substitutes: Cascade and Northern Brewer
Appropriate Beer Styles:  IPA, APA, or any American Ale. 

Purpose:  Bittering & Aroma 
Alpha Acid Composition 7.7%-9.1% 
Beta Acid Composition 3.3%-7.1% 
Co-Humulone Composition 22%-24% 
Total Oil Composition 1.2-1.4 mL/100g 
Myrcene Oil Composition 39%-42% 
Humulene Oil Composition 26%-29% 
Caryophyllene Oil 12%-13% 
Farnesene Oil <1%
Country US


Celeia is the triploid offspring of a Styrian Golding, an Aurora and a Slovenian wild hop. Celeia features an all around, well balanced profile. It is  a versatile hop, with widespread use in Lagers, Pilsners, English-style ales and ESBs.  Celeia has not been well received by breweries to date and is not grown in large commercial quantities. It is described as slightly citrus and floral on the nose, pleasantly bitter and in symmetry with its aroma.  It is well known for its noble characteristics.
Substitutes Saaz, Bobek, Styrian Golding
Appropriate Beer Styles  English Ale, Lager, American Lager, Pilsner, English Ale, Extra Special Bitter

Alpha Acid   3 – 6% 
Beta Acid    2 – 3.3% 
Co-humulone   26 – 29% 
Total Oil   0.6 – 3.6 mL/100g 
Myrcene   26 – 35% of total oil 
Caryophyllene   8 – 9% of total oil 
Farnesene   3 – 7% of total oil 
Humulene   18 – 23% of total oil 
Geraniol   0 – 0% of total oil 
Country  Slovenia


Centennial is an aroma-type cultivar, bred in 1974 and released in 1990. The genetic composition is 3/4 Brewers Gold, 3/32 Fuggle, 1/16 East Kent Golding, 1/32 Bavarian and 1/16 unknown. A relatively new hop on the market, this hop used to be called CFJ90. Described by some as a “Super Cascade” but not nearly as citrusy. Considered to have medium intensity. Some even use it for aroma as well as bittering. Clean Bitterness with floral notes. Possible Substitutions: Cascade, possibly Columbus or Chinook. By the numbers, a blend of 70% Cascade and 30% Columbus should give similar profile as Centennial. 

Alpha Acids 9.5 – 11.5%
Beta Acids 3.5 – 4.5%
Co-Humulone 29 – 30% of alpha acids
Storageability 60 – 65% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 1.5 – 2.3 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 45 – 55% of whole oil
Humulene 10 – 18% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 5 – 8% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil


Chelan is a high alpha variety with a very high percentage of beta acids. The variety was developed through the John I. Haas, Inc., breeding program and released in 1994. It is a daughter of Galena and therefore has analytical data similar to Galena. 

Alpha Acids 12.0 – 14.5%
Beta Acids 8.5 – 9.8%
Co-Humulone 33-35% of alpha acids
Storageability 80% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 1.5 – 1.9 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 45-55% of whole oil
Humulene 12-15% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 9 – 12% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil


Chinook is a bittering variety with aroma characteristics similar to that of Cascade. It was released in May, 1985 and was bred by crossing a Petham Golding with the USDA 63012 male. A high alpha acid hop with medium intensity, a wonderful herbal, spicy, piney, distinctive grapefruit aroma. Excellent for hopping US Style Pale Ale, IPA, Stout, Porter, Barleywine, Lager (bittering). Possible Substitutions: Nugget, Columbus, Northern Brewer, Wye Target, possibly Centennial. Commercial Example: Sierra Nevada Celebration Ale, Sierra Nevada Stout.

Alpha Acids 12.0 – 14.0%
Beta Acids 3.0 – 4.0%
Co-Humulone 29 – 34% of alpha acids
Storageability 65 – 70% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 1.5 – 2.5 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 35 – 40% of whole oil
Humulene 20 – 25% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 9 – 11% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole 


Citra® (HBC 394) is an aroma variety that was released in 2007 by Hop Breeding Co. Ltd., a joint venture between John I. Haas, Inc. and Yakima Chief Inc. It has fairly high alpha acids and total oils, and it imparts a distinctive citrus character to beer. It is known for its intense flavor and aroma characteristics. It is developed from: Hallertauer Mittlefrüh, US Tettnang, Brewer’s Gold and East Kent Golding. Typical Beer Styles: American-style Pale Ale, IPA, Double IPA.

Usage: Aroma
Aroma: Strong citrus and tropical tones—grapefruit, melon, lime, gooseberry, passion fruit and lychee
Alpha Acids 11% – 13%
Beta Acids 3.5% – 4.5%
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids) 22 – 24%
Total Oils (Mls. per 100 grams dried hops) 2.2 – 2.8
Myrcene (as % of total oils) 60 – 65%
Caryophyllene as % of total oils) 6.0 – 8.0%
Humulene (as % of total oils)11 – 13%
Farnesene (as % of total oils) 0.0%
Storage (% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 20° C) 60 – 75%


Cluster originated from mass selection of the Cluster hop, which is an old American cultivar. It is suggested that they arose from hybridization of varieties, imported by Dutch and English settlers and an indigenous male hop plant. It has a strong floral and spicy aroma. It is an excellent general purpose hop with medium and well-balanced bittering potential and no undesirable aroma properties. Possible Substitutions: Galena, possibly US Northern Brewer. Often brewed in Ales (Aroma), Lagers (Bittering), Stouts. It is good for hopping dark beers with roasty and chocolaty aromas..

Alpha Acids 5.5 – 8.5%
Beta Acids 4.5 – 5.5 %
Co-Humulone 36 – 42% of alpha acids
Storageability 80 – 85% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 0.4 – 0.8 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 45 – 55% of whole oil
Humulene 15 – 18% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 6 – 7% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil


This high alpha variety has a pungent aroma similar to Centennial but with less Cascade character (more herbal than floral/citrus). Useful as an aroma hop but has clean bittering. Great for dry hopping. Also known by the trade name Tomahawk. Considered similar to Zeus. Possible Substitutions: Nugget, Chinook, Wye Target, Northern Brewer, possibly Centennial Typically brewed in US IPA, US Pale Ale, Stout, Barleywine, Lager(Bittering).

Alpha Acids 14 – 16%
Beta Acids 4.5 – 5.5%
Co-Humulone 30 – 35% of alpha acids
Storageability Below average alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 1.5 – 2.0 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 25 – 45% of whole oil
Humulene 15 – 25% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 8 – 12% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil


Pedigree is a Cross between English Sunshine and a native North American male.  The brewing Usage is for Bittering.  The aroma is pungent, a wild American aroma with citrus (grapefruit) flavors.  Possible Substitutions are Galena and Summit.  Typical Beer Styles are Lager. Released by the USDA in 1974 to meet the need for a higher alpha-acid producing hop.  
Storage Stability Very good 
Alpha Acids 9.0 – 11.0% 
Beta Acids 4.0 – 6.1% 
Co-Humulone 40 – 45%
Total Oil 1.4 – 3.3 mL / 100g 
Myrcene 40 – 65% of total oil 
Humulene 1 – 2% of total oil 
Caryophyllene 5 – 7% of total oil 
Farnesene < 1% of total oil
General Trade Perception Contains a “wild American” aroma that can be objectionable to some 


Crystal is a triploid aroma-type cultivar, developed from a seedling selection (No. 8309-37) made at Corvallis in 1983 between the colchicine – induced tetraploid ‘Hallertau mf’ (USDA 21397) and the diploid male downy mildew resistant aroma hop, USDA 21381M. Crystal is a half-sister of Mt. Hood and Liberty with contributions from Cascade, Brewer’s Gold and Early Green. Viewed as the most pungent of the new triploid Hallertau family of hops. Possible Substitutions: Mt. Hood, Hersbrucker, French Strisselspalt, Liberty and Hallertau. Typical Beer Styles include Pilsner, Lager, Kölsch, ESB, Alt, Belgian-Style Ales.

Alpha Acids 3.5 – 5.5%
Beta Acids 4.5 – 6.5%
Co-Humulone 20 – 26% of alpha acids
Storageability 50% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20° C
Total Oil 1.0 – 1.5 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 40 – 65% of whole oil
Humulene 18 – 24% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 4 – 8% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole 


Delta is one of the newer hops released in 2009. A slightly spicy aroma that is mild and pleasant, along with hints of citrus and melon.

We’ve heard it described as a super charged Willamette or a Fuggles (which is similar to Willamette) with an American Punch. That would make it a great alternative for finishing ales where you want something a little different than classic C hop type flavor. Would you consider bittering with Bravo? Delta, Bravo we have a winner here.

One of the first beers it went into was Harpoon’s single hop ESB. It is a cross between Fuggle and a Cascade derivative.

Hop Statistics
Alpha Acids: 5.5 – 7.0%
Beta Acids: 5.5 – 7.0%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: .64 – 1.55
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 22 – 24%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 0.5 – 1.1
Storage(% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68° F): 80 -90%
Similar Hop Varieties: Fuggle, Willamette

Denali US (Experimental 06277)

Sultana, AKA Experimental Variety 06277/ Denali™, is a new hop bursting with flavor.  Called Nuggetzilla by some, this hop is rich in pineapple, citrus, and pine flavors, though it can often come off as spicy as well.  It can be used for bittering, flavor, or aroma, and is sure to make an impact!  These have rich characteristics that make for an unmistakeable beer.  Try it in your next pale ale or IPA, sit back, and enjoy the results.

The genetic origin of this hop is 50% Nugget, 25% Zeus, 25% USDA 19058m

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 13 – 15%
Beta Acids: 4.5 – 7.0%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 2.6 – 3.75
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 22 – 26%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 2.5 – 4
Storage (% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68°F): N/A
Similar Hop Varieties: N/A

Forma -Pellet 
Flavor and Aroma-Citrus, Spicy, Tropical 
Alpha Acids-High 
Use-Dual Purpose 
Total Oil Content-High

Dr. Rudi

Dr Rudi was developed at the New Zealand Horticultural Research Center (now New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research) and released in 1976 as “Super Alpha”.  Dr. Rudi is a triploid variety bred from New Zealand Smoothcone. Its name was changed to Dr. Rudi in 2012.  It was originally considered a bittering hop, but is now widely regarded as a dual-purpose hop.   It features a grassy, piney, citrus character and is also well known for its clean and crisp bittering despite its high cohumulone content.  Dr. Rudi works well in single-hopped beers or in conjunction with multiple aroma varieties.
Substitutes Green Bullet 
Appropriate Beer Style: Lager, India Pale Ale

Aroma: Specific aroma descriptors include resin, pine, and lemongrass. 
Also Known As SuperAlpha, Dr Rudi 
Characteristics  Grass, pine and citrus flavors 
Purpose Bittering & Aroma 
Alpha Acid Composition 10%-12% 
Beta Acid Composition 7%-8.5% 
Co-Humulone Composition 36%-39% 
Total Oil Composition 1.3-1.6 mL/100g
Myrcene Oil Composition 29%-48% 
Humulene Oil Composition 22%-33% 
Caryophyllene Oil 6%-10% 
Farnesene Oil 0%-1% 
Country  New Zealand


El Dorado® is a special dual purpose variety with exceptional aroma qualities and high alpha acids. It was developed by CLS Farms, LLC in 2008 and released in 2010. El Dorado® consistently elicits responses of fruity notes, specifically tropical fruit flavors. Other fruit notes offered have been pear, watermelon and stone fruit.

Alpha Acids 14.0 – 16.0%
Beta Acids 7.0 – 8.0%
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids) 28 – 33%
Total Oils (Mls. per 100 grams dried hops) 2.5 – 2.8
Myrcene (as % of total oils) 55 – 60%
Caryophyllene (as % of total oils) 6.0 – 8.0%
Humulene (as % of total oils) 10 – 15%
Farnesene (as % of total oils) 0.1%
Storage (% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 20° C) 60 – 75%
Ekuanot® Brand HBC 366 (Equinox)

Ekuanot® (formally Equinox and HBC 366) was developed by Hop Breeding Company and released in 2014.  Ekuanot® Brand HBC 366 features pronounced aroma characteristics and extremely high oil content.  It offers versatility across fresh-flavored styles and is noted for an indescribably unique berry-and-fresh-pepper.  

Ekuanot® is one of the newest hop varietals released and has been received with much acclaim. The ridiculously high oil content (2.5-4 ml/100g!) and desirable aromatics have lead breweries of all sizes to flock to this hop. Great for all beer styles but definitely featured in IPAs and other hop forward beers. Ekuanot® is described as having aromas of melon, berry, orange peel, lime, papaya, pine and fresh peppers.  Tropical fruit, papaya and mango notes are reminiscent of Mosaic and Citra.

Aroma: Specific descriptors include melon, berry, orange peel, lime, papaya, pine and fresh peppers (unusual).
Alpha Acid 13 – 15.5% 
Beta Acid 4 – 5% 
Co-humulone 31 – 36% 
Total Oil 2.5 – 4 mL/100g 
B-Pinene 0.4 – 0.8% of total oil 
Myrcene 30 – 45% of total oil 
Linalool 0.2 – 0.5% of total oil 
Caryophyllene 8 – 12% of total oil 
Farnesene < 1.0% of total oil 
Humulene 12 – 20% of total oil 
Geraniol 0.2 – 0.2% of total oil

Ella™ hops, formally known as Stella, is an Australian aroma variety. It is half-sister to Galaxy and the progeny of Spalt and a tetraploid female.  It was developed in the state of Victoria in the early 2000’s. By 2007, Ella™ was released in brewing trials.  It was an immediate hit and the variety was fast-tracked into commercial production.  Due to its high level of oils, Ella™ can significantly change character depending on how it is utilized.  Ella can give off a very spicy, earthy, almost anise like aroma in a boil and provides a bright, tropical fruit and citrus scent when dry hopped. These aromatic qualities work best in styles like Lagers, Pilsners, and IPAs. A high alpha acid range of 13% to 16% is overshadowed by the very oily composition of Ella hops, letting the plethora of aromas go to work. 
Substitutes:  For a Spicy Aroma use Delta or Cashmere hops, but go for a fruity hop like Citra if dry hopping.

Alpha Acid 13.3 – 16.3%
Beta Acid 4.8 – 7.8%
Co-humulone 34 – 38%
Total Oil 2.4 – 3.4 mL/100g
Myrcene 40 – 50% of total oil
Caryophyllene 12 – 18% of total oil
Farnesene < 1.0% of total oil
Humulene 16 – 22% of total oil
Geraniol 0 – 0% of total oil

EroicaGeneral purpose bittering for ales, porters, stouts. Aroma: Clean bittering hop, very bitter. Substitutes: Galena, Northern Brewer, Chinook. Examples: Blackhoolk Porter, Ballard Bitter. Origin: US Type: Bittering Form: Pellet Alpha: 13.0% Beta: 4.8% Hop Stability Index: 35.0% per 6 mths 

Falconer’s Flight™

Falconer’s Flight™ is an exclusive proprietary hop blend created by Hop Union to honor and support the legacy of Northwest brewing legend, Glen Hay Falconer.

This novel proprietary pellet blend is comprised of many of the Northwest’s most unique hop varieties (including Citra™, Simcoe®, and Sorachi Ace along with experimental hops and numerous other NW varieties and is perfect for any Northwest-style IPA. Each hop has been hand selected for its superior aromatic qualities, imparting distinct tropical, citrus, floral, lemon, and grapefruit tones.

Possible Substitutions: Cascade, Columbus, Centennial

Technical Specifications: Aroma: tropical, citrus, floral, lemon, grapefruit
Alpha Acids: 10 – 12%
Beta Acids: 4.3%


Fuggle is an aroma-type cultivar selected in England as a chance seedling in 1875. In 1949, 78% of the English crops were Fuggle. It is also marketed as Styrian (Savinja) Golding in the Slovenian Republic. In the USA it is grown in Oregon and Washington State. Superb in English-style ales, and lends a unique character not imparted by the more subtle American-grown Fuggle. Fuggle is a spicy, mild, aromatic hop with a slight fruity and woody character. Also described as having a soft, grassy, floral aroma. Commercial Example: Samuel Smith’s Pale Ale, Old Peculier, Thomas Hardy’s Ale. Possible Substitutions: East Kent Goldings, Willamette.

Alpha Acids 4.0 – 5.5% w/w
Beta Acids 1.5 – 2.0% w/w
Co-Humulone 25 – 32% of alpha acids
Storageability 60 – 65% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 0.7 – 1.2 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 40 – 50% of whole oil
Humulene 20 – 26% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 6 – 10% of whole oil
Farnesene 4 – 5% of whole oil

Fuggle US

A mild-flavored English-style hop grown in Oregon, with a fragrant wood-like aroma. Milder in character than English Fuggles. This hop imparts a smooth, well rounded hop character. In the US it has been replaced in part by Willamette (triploid Fuggle), which growers find more favorable. Possible Substitutions: UK Fuggle, Willamette, Styrian Golding, US Tettnang.

Lupulin Moderate amount, yellow color
Aroma Mild, woody and fruity
Alpha Acids 4.0 – 5.5% w/w
Beta Acids 1.5 – 2.0% w/w
Co-Humulone 25 – 32% of alpha acids
Storageability 60 – 65% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 0.7 – 1.2 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 40 – 50% of whole oil
Humulene 20 – 26% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 6 – 10% of whole oil
Farnesene 4 – 5% of whole oil


Best used as a late addition for flavor or aroma, Galaxy hops contribute a distinctive citrus and passion fruit character which is more striking and intense the later the addition. Developed and grown exclusively in Australia. Great for pale ales, IPAs and double IPAs 

Possible Substitutions: Citra 

Technical Specifications: 
Aroma: citrus, passion, pineapple 
Alpha Acids: Approx. 13 – 15% 
Beta Acids: 5.8 – 6.0% 
Co-Humulone: 35% 
Total Oil: 2.4 – 2.7 ml/100g 
Myrcene: 33 – 42% 
Humulene: 1 – 2% 
Caryophyllene: 9 – 12% 
Farnesene: 4 – 6%


Galena is a bittering-type cultivar which was bred in 1968 from Brewers Gold and an open pollination, i.e. an unknown male plant. It was released for cultivation in 1978. Galena is the most “mellow” hop of the high-alpha varieties, and has replaced Cluster as the most widely grown US hop. The bitterness is clean and well balanced and the aroma is citrusy. Great general purpose bittering hop. Typical Beer Styles are most English-style and American Ales. Possible Substitutions: Eroica, Northern Brewer, Cluster, Chinook, Nugget. Commercial Example: Catamount Porter, Devil’s Mountain Railroad Ale. 

Alpha Acids 12 – 14% w/w
Beta Acids 7 – 9% w/w
Co-Humulone 38 – 42% of alpha acids
Storageability 75 – 80% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 0.9 – 1.2 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 55 – 60% of whole oil
Humulene 10 – 15% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 3 – 5% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil

German Select

German Select contains low alpha levels and strong aromatics for a true noble character. Ideal for all types of Lagers, expect an aroma of floral and rich fruit with a touch of noble earthiness.   Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 3 – 6.5%
Beta Acids: 2.5 – 5.0%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: .60 – 2.6
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 21 – 27%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: NA
Storage(% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68° F): NA
Similar Hop Varieties: Saaz, Tettnanger


Released in 2000 as a public variety by Dr. Stephen Kenny, Washington State University It is a genetic mix of at least 8 hops including Elsasser, Brewers Gold, Northern Brewer, Bullion, Early Green, and others. It was chosen for its low cohumulone and good yield potential. Glacier is an excellent new variety with balanced bittering properties combined with a good aroma profile. It is a low-cohumulone American Fuggle descendant. Possible Substitutions: Willamette, US Fuggle, US Tettnang, Styrian Golding, Eroica, Nugget, Olympic. Typical Beer Styles: Pale Ale, ESB, Bitter, English-Style Pale Ale, Porter, Stout.

Lupulin Moderately abundant
Aroma Excellent, pleasant hoppiness
Alpha Acids 5.5% w/w
Beta Acids 8.2% w/w
Co-Humulone 11 – 13% of alpha acids
Storageability Good
Total Oil 0.7 – 1.6 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 33 – 62% of whole oil
Humulene 24 – 36% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 6.5 – 10% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil


Godiva™ is best used in late additions, and is known for its sweet and smooth bittering characteristics. A daughter of Jester, this hop was selected for its aroma, yield, and resistance to disease. Godiva™ displays notes of tangerine, gooseberry, and spice. 

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 6 – 9%
Beta Acids: 2 – 3%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 1.1 – 4.5
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 25 – 29%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 0.4 – 0.8
Similar Hop Varieties: Blanc, Wai-iti

Flavor and Aroma-Tangerine, Gooseberry, Spice 
Alpha Acids-Average 
Total Oil Content-Low 


Golding is a family of aroma-type cultivars originating in England. Over the decades, the family has changed and widened. Mostly they have been named after villages in East Kent, (Petham, Rothersham, Canterbury, Eastwell) or hop farmers, who grew them (Amos’s Early Bird, Cobbs). English Goldings grown in East Kent, are a premium hop, called East Kent Golding and should not be confused with U.K. Goldings, which are grown in other parts such as Worcestershire, Hampshire and Herefordshire. The cultivar grown in the USA (Oregon and Washington State) is a Canterbury Golding. It is considered the premier English aroma hop. The aroma is floral, aromatic and earthy with a slightly sweet spicy flavor. It is superb in English-style ales, and lends a unique character to fine lagers as well. Typical Beer Styles include all English-style beers, especially all Bitters and Pale Ale, Belgian-Style Ales and Barleywines. Possible Substitutions: UK East Kent Golding, UK Progress and possibly the Fuggle family. Commercial Examples: Bass Pale Ale, Fullers ESB, Samual Smith’s Pale Ale

Alpha Acids 4.0 – 5.0% w/w
Beta Acids 2.0 – 3.0% w/w
Co-Humulone 20 – 25% of alpha acids
Storageability 65 – 80% of alpha acids after 6 months at 20ºC
Total Oil 0.5 – 1.0 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 20 – 35% of whole oil
Humulene 35 – 45% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 10 – 15% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil

Green Bullet

Released from the New Zealand DSIR (now HortResearch) in 1972 this triploid Alpha Variety was bred by open cross-pollination of the New Zealand “Smoothcone” variety. Selection can be confusing with New Zealand Bitter types due to aromatic qualities not usually associated with alpha varieties. The Green Bullet has quite high Alpha while it also produces reasonably high levels of oil that complement and balance the very traditional resinous hop character. Considered a bittering variety typically for Lager, Green Bullet also carries a solid Styrian characteristic of subtle spiciness which finds it at home in a freshly drawn pint of Bitter or an Irish-style Dry Stout.

Alpha Acids 11.0 – 14.0 %
Beta Acids 6.5 – 7.0 %
Cohumulone 41.0 – 43.0 % of Alpha Acids
Total Oil 1.1 mls oil per 100 gram cone weight
Concentration 65 uL Oil/gram Alpha
Myrcene 38.3 %
Humulene 28.2 %
Caryophyllene 9.2 %
Farnasene 0.3 %
Citrus-Piney Fraction 7.9 %
Floral Estery Fraction 2.3 % (Linalool 1.2 %)
Xanthohumol 0.7 %
Other 10.7 %

Hallertau Blanc

Hallertau Blanc is considered a daughter of Cascade.  It was released in 2012. Established on the Hüll farm in the German Hallertau region, it was grown primarily for use in American-style Ales there. Hallertau Blanc’s flavor profile is said to be fruity, with wine-like qualities of gooseberry and grass, similar to that of Sauvignon Blanc.  It also features a complex aroma profile, with notes of cassis and elderflower in addition to grapes, grapefruit and lemongrass. Other reviewes detected passionfruit, pineapple and gooseberry.
Substitutes  Nelson Sauvin 

Characteristics:  Flavors of white-wine and fruit
Aromas:  Cassis, elderflower, grapes, grapefruit and lemongrass.
Purpose Aroma 
Alpha Acid Composition 9%-12% 
Beta Acid Composition 4.5%-6% 
Co-Humulone Composition 22%-26%
Total Oil Composition 0.8-1.5 mL/100g 
Myrcene Oil Composition 50%-75% 
Humulene Oil Composition 0%-3% 
Caryophyllene Oil 0%-2% 
Farnesene Oil 0.8-1.5 mL/
Country Germany

Hallertau mf

Hallertau mf (Mittelfrueh) is an aroma-type cultivar which originated in Germany as a land – race hop. The original Hallertau mf in Germany has been replaced with other Hallertau types with similar quality characteristics. The name indicates that it is a middle to early ripening cultivar. If you are looking to brew an authentic European-style lager, this is the best choice. Its importance in German lagers is drastically underrated. It has a mild/pleasant noble, spicy, and herbal aroma and flavor. Possible Substitutes: Hallertauer, German Tradition, Mt. Hood, Liberty, Crystal. 

German Hallertauer

Traditional German hop from Hallertau region. Pleasant herbal character with an excellent bittering and flavoring profile. (Alpha Acid: 3-6% Beta Acid: 4-5%) Commerical Example: Wheathook Wheaten Ale. 

Hallertauer Hersbrucker

Drier, spicier than Hallertauer. Most important aroma variety in Germany.  German Hersbrucker is a version of Hallertau that has a mild to semi-strong pleasant aroma. This hop is very good for use as an aroma hop. It has become a widely grown hop in Germany, not only in the Hersbruck area but also in the Hallertau and Spalt areas. Typical beer styles that utilize this hop include lagers, pilsners, bocks, weizenbocks, wheats, Belgian-style ales, Kolsch, and Munich helles. 

Possible Substitutions: Mt Hood, Strisselspalt 

Technical Specifications: 
Aroma: fruit, spice, floral 
Alpha Acids: 3 – 5% 
Beta Acids: 4 – 5.5% 
Co-Humulone: 19 – 25% 
Total Oil: 0.7 – 1.3 ml/100g 
Myrcene: 15 – 25% 
Humulene: 15 – 25% 
Caryophyllene: 7 – 12% 
Farnesene: < 1%

German Hallertau

Traditional variety with very mild, slightly flowery and somewhat spicy traditonal German hop aroma. Used for Lagers, Pilsners, Bocks, Wheats, Kolsch, Munich Helles, Belgian-Style Ales. Commercial Examples: Sam Adams Boston Lager, Sam Adams Boston Lightship

For U.S. Hallertau:
Alpha Acids 3.5 – 5.5% w/w
Beta Acids 3.5 – 5.5% w/w
Co-Humulone 18 – 24% of alpha acids
Storageability 52 – 58% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 0.6 – 1.0 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 35 – 44% of whole oil
Humulene 30 – 38% of whole oil Caryophyllene 10 – 12% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil


This Australian bred hop has a decidedly German character from parent varietal Hallertauer Mittelfruh. Helga was a product of open pollination of a Hallertauer Mittelfruh female, and was formerly known as Southern Hallertau. After its commercial release in the late 1980s, Helga began gaining popularity among craft brewers in the late 1990s for its versatility as a dual purpose ingredient. With an alpha acid range of just 5% to 7.5%, the bittering quality is not strong, but apparent in beers like Belgian and American Ales. A delicate floral, herbaceous aroma carries a bit of spice for a depth that works well in darker Lagers. Helga demonstrates a forgiving and refined character in a variety of beer styles and hop applications.  Helga is easy to work with—no matter at what point it is added into the brew, even when dry hopping, the results are said to be ever pleasant.
Substitutes: Hallertauer Mittelfruh 

Also Known As   Southern Hallertau 
Characteristics  Noble-style aroma, mildly floral and spicy 
Purpose   Aroma 
Alpha Acid Composition   5.4%-7.3% 
Beta Acid Composition   5%-7% 
Co-Humulone Composition   20%-23% 
Total Oil Composition   0.6-1.0 mL/100g 
Myrcene Oil Composition   1%-13% 
Humulene Oil Composition   35%-55% 
Caryophyllene Oil   35%-55% 
Farnesene Oil  < 1.0% of total oil 
Country Australia


A newer German hop, Herkules was bred from a cross between Hallertau Taurus and a Hull male, and released by the Hull Hop Research Center in 2005. Though Herkules offers a unique aroma of spicy, pine, and peppery notes, this varietal is most commonly used as a bittering agent in brews due to its high alpha content. With an alpha acid range of about 12% to 17%, this hop provides a strong bittering quality in German style Ales and Lagers. The combination of intense flavor and bittering makes Herkules hops a popular brewing ingredient.
Substitutes: Hallertau Taurus or Warrior

Characteristics   Notes of melon, black pepper and pine 
Purpose   Bittering & Aroma 
Alpha Acid Composition  12%-17% 
Beta Acid Composition  4%-5.5% 
Co-Humulone Composition  32%-38% 
Total Oil Composition   1.4-2.4 mL/100g 
Myrcene Oil Composition 30%-50% 
Humulene Oil Composition  28%-45% 
Caryophyllene Oil  7%-12% 
Farnesene Oil  < 1% 
Country Germany


Horizon is a high alpha-aroma cultivar, a diploid seedling result of a cross made in 1970 between the USDA 65009 female plant (with Brewers Gold and Early Green lineage) and the male plant 64035M. It was released as a commercial variety in 1998. It is a good dual-purpose hop with pleasant aroma, derived from Nugget. Possible Substitutions: Magnum or your choice of high alpha hop. Commercial Example: Summit Horizon Red Ale

Alpha Acids 11.0 – 13.0% w/w
Beta Acids 6.5 – 8.5% w/w
Co-Humulone 16 – 19% of alpha acids
Storageability Normal
Total Oil 1.5 – 2.0 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 5.5 – 6.5% of whole oil
Humulene 11 – 13% of whole oil
Caryphyllene 7.5 – 9.0% of whole oil
Farnesene 2.5 – 3.5% of whole 

Hull Melon

A new breed of hops released in 2012, this is a daughter of Cascade. This aromatic hop will create flavors and aromas of melon and strawberry. One of several new German varieties with bold flavor profiles, perfect for American-style Ales. 

Possible Substitutions: N/A 

Technical Specifications: 
Aroma: honeydew melon and strawberry 
Alpha Acids: 6.9 – 7.5% 
Beta Acids: 7.3 – 7.9% 
Co-Humulone: 25 – 30% 
Total Oil: .8 ml/100g 
Myrcene: 36% 
Humulene: 10 – 20% 
Caryophyllene: 5 – 10% 
Farnesene: <1%

Idaho Gem™

Idaho Gem™ is a remarkable hop of unknown lineage. It was found by Gooding Farms in Parma, and aptly named after its home state. This treasured dual-purpose hop is loaded with sweet, fruit-forward aromatic oils that make it prime for late kettle and dry hopping additions. Use liberally in Pale Ales, IPA’s and NEIPA’s. Idaho Gem™ will dazzle you with flavors of pineapple, cherry, and candied fruit, with an herbal and spicy aroma.  

Hop Statistics
Alpha Acids: 12 – 14%
Beta Acids: 5 – 7%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 1.7 – 2.8
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 1.3 – 2%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 40 – 45

Storability- Good
Format- Pellet 
Origin- American 
Flavor and Aroma- Pineapple, Cherry, Herbal, Spicy 
Alpha Acids- High 
Use- Aroma/Flavor 
Total Oil Content- High 
Cohumulone- Low

Jarrylo US

Jarrylo is a relatively new hop that has been well received by craft brewers. The hops aromas of banana, grass, pear, orange, spice and fruit is attractive for Pale Ales, Saisons and many Belgian styles. The flavors and aromas of Jarrylo work to enhance the natural esters produced in the fermentation process. Provides lots of flavor due to its high oil content. Try this unique hop in one of your next batches and see what you can pull out of it.

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 15 – 17%
Beta Acids: 6 – 7.5%
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 34 – 37%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 3.6 – 4.3

Storability- Average
Flavor and Aroma-Grassy, Spicy, Fruity, Citrus
Alpha Acids High
Use Dual Purpose
Total Oil Content Low

Jester UK

Jester is a relatively new, up and coming hop from England with only a handful of breweries having had a chance to experiment with this mysterious hop. We decided we would bring it in and let our customers be some of the first homebrewers to test it out. Now, not much is known of this hop but our sources describe it as tropical and fruity with hints of grapefruit, lychee, and blackcurrant.

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 7.0 – 9.0%
Beta Acids: N/A
Alpha-Beta Ratio: N/A
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 23 – 28
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: N/A
Storage(% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68° F): N/A
Similar Hop Varieties: N/A

Flavor and Aroma-Fruity, Tropical
Alpha Acids-Average 
Use-Dual Purpose 
Total Oil Content-Average


Lemon drop is a newly released aroma hop from Hopsteiner, formally Experimental #01210.  Derived from Cascade, you will find some familiar flavors residing in these lupulin glands. The hops name alludes to the aroma descriptors of lemon, mint, green tea, and slight melon.  Lemon drop is rapidly making a name for itself in pale ales and IPAs, but don’t forget about how great some lemon flavor is in your favorite Hefeweizen, Kolsch or Blonde Ale!  

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 5.0 – 7.0%
Beta Acids: 4.0 – 6.0%
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 28 – 34%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 1.5 – 2.0
Similar Hop Varieties: Cascade, Mandarina Bavaria, Centennial

Flavor and Aroma-Lemon, Citrus, Herbal 
Alpha Acids-Low 
Total Oil Content-Low 


Liberty is a triploid aroma-type cultivar with close similarities to imported German aroma varieties. Of the four triploid Hallertau varieties released, Liberty most closely resembles the Hallertau cultivar. The result in 1983 of the colchicine induced tetrapcoid female cultivar Hallertau mf and a downy mildew resistant male, USDA 64035M. It is a half-sister to Ultra, Mt. Hood and Crystal. Its aroma is mild with a slightly spicy character. Possible Substitutions: US or German Hallertau, German Tradition, Mt. Hood, possibly Spalt. Commercial Examples: Pete’s Wicked Lager.

Alpha Acids 3.0 – 5.0% w/w
Beta Acids 3.0 – 4.0% w/w
Co-Humulone 24 – 30% of alpha acids
Storageability 35 – 55% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20ºC
Total Oil 0.6 – 1.2 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 20 – 40% of whole oil
Humulene 35 – 40% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 9 – 12% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil

Loral™Loral was selected based upon its noble (floral, citrus, earth, spicy) characteristics combined with its unique dark fruit character—essentially a noble hop with a uniquely American twist.  It was developed by Hop Breeding Company and released in 2016.   Loral™ Brand HBC 291 has a noble heritage combines old and new world hop aromatics. It has the ability to complement all beer styles, making it a very versatile hop in the home brewery.  Loral™ has been described as pleasant with floral, citrus, peppery and some dark fruit characteristics.

Aroma: Specific aroma descriptors include very pleasant, floral, peppery, lemon-citrus and dark fruit.
Alpha Acid 11.3 – 12.2% 
Beta Acid 4.9 – 5.3% 
Co-humulone 21 – 24% 
Total Oil 1.8 – 2.9 mL/100g 
B-Pinene 0.6 – 0.7% of total oil 
Myrcene 52 – 58% of total oil 
Linalool 1 – 1.1% of total oil
Caryophyllene 5 – 5.7% of total oil 
Farnesene < 1.0% of total oil 
Humulene 17.8 – 17.9% of total 
Geraniol 0.2 – 0.3% of total oil


Version of Saaz grown in Poland – also called “Lubelski”. It is a Polish landrace almost certainly derived from Czech Saaz. Lublin is considered noble by some and has a chemical composition and aroma characteristics very similar to the classic noble hops, but is somewhat easier to grow. Use for: Bohemian lagers and Pilsners Aroma: Noble, mild flavor similar to Saaz Substitites: Saaz, Tettnanger

Origin: Poland Type: Bittering Form: Pellet Alpha: 5.0% Beta: 3.0% Hop Stability Index: 40.0% per 6 mths


Magnum is a bittering type cultivar, bred in 1980 at Huell, the German Hop Research Instititute, from the American variety Galena and the German male 75/5/3. It is considered a German Hallertauer hybrid and is widely used in Germany . It has no real distinct aroma character, so is viewed favorably as a clean bittering hop. Use for all German ales and lagers. Possible Substitutions: Northern Brewer, possibly Horizon. Typical Beer Styles: Good bittering hop for all Ales and Lagers.

Alpha Acids 12 – 14% w/w
Beta Acids 4.5 – 6% w/w
Co-Humulone 24 – 28% of alpha acids
Storageability Very good alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 1.9 – 2.3 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 30 – 35% of whole oil
Humulene 34 – 40% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 8 – 12% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil

Mandarina Bavaria

This brand new German varietal was just released in 2012 from the Hull Hop Institute. With Galena as a parent, you can expect the same type of wonderfully fruity aroma. Mandarina Bavaria is used more for aromatics than bittering in a wide variety of beer styles. Since Mandarina Bavaria is still so new, it is continually being tested in all kinds of brews, from IPAs to Belgian Ales and Lagers.  It is known for having a fruity, citrusy, Mandarin Orange flavor, hence the name. It is a daughter hop of Cascade grown in Germany and is also said to slightly enhance sweetness. Substitutes:  Nugget and Columbus

Alpha Acids 7.0 – 10.0% 
Beta Acids 5.0 – 6.5%  
Co-Humulone 31 – 35% 
Total Oil ~2.2 mL / 100g 
Myrcene ~71% of total oil 
Humulene 5 – 15% of total oil 
Caryophyllene 1 – 5% of total oil 
Farnesene < 1% of total oil


Quickly becoming one of the most sought after hops, Medusa™ is turning heads in the brewing world and turning beer glasses bottoms up. Humulus lupulus neomexicanus, native to Colorado and New Mexico, forms a multiheaded cone that lends to the inspiration for its name. With low alpha acid levels and high Myrcene oil content, this hop is prime for late additions, including whirlpool and dry hopping. Medusa™ imparts strong flavors and aromas of guava, melon, apricot, and citrus.   

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 2.5-4%
Beta Acids: 5.8-6.3%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 0.4 – 0.7
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 32-36%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 0.8 – 1.2%


A brand new hop with crisp flavors of lemon, mixed berry, and tropical fruit. The really unique thing about this hop that commercial brewers are reporting, is that when used with other hops Meridian pushes and complements the flavor of those hops in unique and interesting ways. Blending hops is like blending wine – the final blended flavor is definitely different than the individual flavors. So try it ala carte in your next Belgian Pale or Blonde Ale and use it with your favorite IPA hops in your next hop bomb!

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 6.0 – 7.0%
Beta Acids: 6.0 – 9.0%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: .67 – 1.00
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 45%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 1.0 – 1.4
Storage(% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68° F): Not Available
Similar Hop Varieties: Citra, Glacier, Centennial


Merkur hops are getting a fast reputation as a great bittering hop. It was bred from Magnum one of our all time favorite bittering hops. Except Merkur has a lower co-humulone level which can lead to a smoother bitterness.  It is considered a dual purpose hops also suitable for lending some nice aroma. Merkur has a high level Myrcene oil content that can lend an earthy aroma.  Citrus aromas also reported.  

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 12 – 15%
Beta Acids: 3.5 – 7.0%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 1.71 – 4.28
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 16 – 20%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 2.2 – 2.8 ml
Storage(% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68° F): NA
Similar Hop Varieties: German Magnum, German Taurus, German Tradition


Millennium is a triploid, high alpha acid variety, a cross breeding of Nugget and Columbus hops in 1989. It was made publicly available in the year 2000. It is a very new hop. Primarily used for alpha potential. Millennium hops are very similar to Nugget hops in aroma and flavor. Described as floral, resiny, and spicy/herbal. Possible Substitutions: Nugget and Columbus. Typical Beer Styles: Ales, Stout, Barleywine.

Lupulin Yellow
Aroma Mild, Herbal, similar to Nugget
Alpha Acids 15.5% w/w
Beta Acids 4.8% w/w
Co-Humulone 30% of alpha acids
Storageability 24% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20ºC
Total Oil 2.0 mls/100 grams
Myrcene Great variation
Humulene 25% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 10.6% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil


Mosaic™ (HBC 369) is an aroma hop variety developed by Hop Breeding Company, LLC that was released in 2012. It offers a unique and complex blend of floral, tropical, fruity,and earthy characteristics that work very well with many different beer styles. Mosaic™ is the daughter of Simcoe® (YCR 14) and a Nugget derived male. It is bred by the same people who brought you Citra, Warrior, Ahtanum, Palisade, and Simcoe. It is called “Mosaic” because the hop has a range of aromas and flavors which are complimentary to other common hop aromas and flavors. You will find everything from citrus, pine, earth, herbal, mint, bubblegum, blueberry, lime peel, black pepper, grassy, cedar, floral, tropical, onion/garlic, spice and stone fruit.. 

Alpha Acids 11.5 – 13.5%
Beta Acids 3.2 – 3.9%
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids) 24 – 26%
Total Oils (Mls. per 100 grams dried hops) 1.0 – 1.5
Myrcene (as % of total oils) 47 – 53%
Caryophyllene (as % of total oils) 5.2 – 7.8%
Humulene (as % of total oils) 13 – 16%
Farnesene (as % of total oils) 1.0%


Referred to as both New Zealand Motueka and B Saaz hops, this hop varietal has a clear lineage from the Saaz line. Bright notes of lemon, lime, and tropical fruits make Motueka a versatile brewing ingredient that compliments an array of beer styles.  Motueka is most commonly used in IPAs, pale ales, and Belgians, but also brightens-up lagers and European ales. 
Substitutes:  Saaz or Sterling 

Aroma: Specific aroma descriptors include distinctive fresh crushed citrus, “Mojito” lime character, lively lemon and lime tones with background hints of tropical fruit.
Alpha Acid 6.5 – 7.5% 
Beta Acid 5 – 5.5% 
Co-humulone 28 – 30% 
Total Oil 0.7 – 0.9 mL/100g 
Myrcene 47 – 49% of total oil 
Caryophyllene 1 – 3% of total oil 
Farnesene 12.1 – 12.3% of total oil 
Humulene 3.5 – 3.7% of total oil 
Geraniol 0 – 0% of total oil 

Mount Hood

Mt. Hood is a triploid aroma-type cultivar, the 1983 result of a cross between the colchicine – induced tetraploid female Hallertau mf (USDA 21397) and the USDA 19058M, male plant. It is the most popular hop in the triploid Hallertau breeding program, partly due to the fact it was the first one released. It is a half-sister to Ultra, Liberty and Crystal. Mt. Hood is an aromatic variety with marked similarities to the German Hallertauer and Hersbrucker varieties since it is derived from Hallertau. It has a refined, mild, pleasant and clean, somewhat pungent resiny/spicy aroma and provides clean bittering. A good choice for lagers, Pilsner, Bock, US Wheat, Alt, and Munich Helles. Possible Substitutions: Crystal, French Strisselspalt, Hersbrucker.

Alpha Acids 5.0 – 8.0% w/w
Beta Acids 5.0 – 7.5% w/w
Co-Humulone 22 – 23% of alpha acids
Storageability 50-60% alpha acid after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 1.0 – 1.3 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 55 – 65% of whole oil
Humulene 15 – 25% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 7 – 10% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil


Mt. Rainier was released by the U.S.D.A. in 2008 as a dual-purpose hop. Mt. Rainier is a daughter of the German cultivar Magnum and has higher alpha acid content than many other aroma-type hops. Mt. Rainier has smooth bitterness due to its lower cohumulone content and imparts licorice and floral flavor notes. It is similar to Hallertau but with more bittering strength

Alpha Acids    8.0-10.8% w/w
Beta Acids      7.6-9.3% w/w
Co-Humulone 21-23% of alpha acids
Storageability 75% alpha acid after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil          1.8-2.7 mls/100 grams
Myrcene          61-71% of whole oil
Humulene        16-21% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 4.6-6.6% of whole oil
Farnesene        <1% of whole oil


Multihead is a neomexicanus breed so named for its tendency to produce dual cones. Low alpha acid levels and high oil content make this hop perfect for packing flavor and aroma into your beer. Known for imparting intense tropical flavors of melon, guava, apricot and citrus. Although primarily used as a late addition, Multihead is known to contribute a mellow, peachy character when added early in the boil. 

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 3.5 – 4.5%
Beta Acids: 5.5 – 8%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 0.43 – 0.82
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 45%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 0.5 – 1.5

Storability- Good
Format- Pellet
Origin- American 
Flavor and Aroma- Citrus, Tropical, Peachy 
Alpha Acids- Low 
Use- Aroma/Flavor 
Total Oil Content- Low
Cohumulone- High

Nelson Sauvin

Nelson Sauvin’s name is derived from the Sauvignon Blanc wine grape to which many agree has similar flavor and aroma characteristics. Developed in New Zealand, it is a descendant of Smoothcone.  It was released in 2000, it is considered too wild for many major brewers. Despite this, Nelson Sauvin has found significant use among craft breweries and home brewers for its eccentric characteristics.  They variety has gained popularity in American-style Pale Ales but is definitely a hop that requires prudent and discerning application in brewing. A high alpha and distinctly fruity aroma make Nelson Sauvin hops totally unique. A bright aroma of gooseberry, grapefruit and citrus pack a punch in beer styles like APAs, IPAs, and even some lagers.  Nelson Sauvin’s oil profile is complex and works well as an aroma hop, flavor hop and also for bittering, offering a great bittering quality that is balanced by its intense fruitiness.  Low cohumulone is responsible for its smooth bittering qualities. 
Substitutes: Pacifica and Pacific Jade
Appropriate Beer Styles:   American Pale Ale, India Pale Ale, Pale Ale

Characteristics  Smooth bittering, rich, fruity, gooseberry and white-wine flavors Purpose  Bittering & Aroma 
Alpha Acid Composition 12%-13%
Beta Acid Composition 6%-8% 
Co-Humulone Composition 24% 
Total Oil Composition 1.1 mL/100g 
Myrcene Oil Composition 22%
Humulene Oil Composition 36.4% 
Caryophyllene Oil 10.7% 
Farnesene Oil 10.7% 
Country New Zealand


Neo1 absolutely bursts with bright lemon-citrus flavor and tropical notes. This dual-purpose hop will contribute a decent amount of bitterness when added early to mid-boil, but plays well as a late boil or dry hop addition. This neomexicanus hop is a sister of Amallia.

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 6 – 9%
Beta Acids: 3 – 4%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 1.5 – 3.0 

Flavor and Aroma-Lemon, Citrus, Tropical 
Alpha Acids-Average 
Use-Dual Purpose 


A descendant of Hallertauer Magnum, this is a great bittering hop with high Alpha content, and a mild flavor and aroma. Generally used in ales, this is viewed as an excellent Bittering hop. It has a high Co-Humulone content, which can make for an interesting change to the character of a beer. Newport hops also offer a subtly citrus aroma with hints of balsamic.A great choice for brews like Barley Wine and Imperial Ale. 
Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 13.5 – 17.0%
Beta Acids: 7.2 – 9.1%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 1.6 – 3.4
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 36 – 38%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 1.6 – 3.4
Storage(% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68° F): 60%
Similar Hop Varieties: Magnum, Nugget, Fuggle

New Zealand Motueka

Also referred to as B Saaz hops, this Saazer descendent is mostly used for its bold aroma of of lemon, lime and tropical fruits. A fantastic addition to Lagers, Belgian and English Ales, Motueka is also a great way to spice-up your favorite IPA recipe.

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 6.5 – 8.5%
Beta Acids: 5.0 – 5.5%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 1.18 – 1.7
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): ~29%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: ~0.8
Similar Hop Varieties: Saaz, 

New Zealand Pacifica

Pacifica is also sometimes called Pacific Hallertau due to its German lineage. Utilized as an aromatic hop, it retains that spicy, almost cinnimon like characteristic blended with the New Zealand influence of bright lime, citrus, and floral. Try Pacifica in a Pilsner, Lager or Porter recipe.  

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 5.0 – 6.0%
Beta Acids: ~6%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: .83 – 1
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): ~25%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: ~1.0
Storage(% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68° F): NA
Similar Hop Varieties: Hallertau

New Zealand Pacific Gem

A Triploid Alpha type bred from the New Zealand variety “Smoothcone” crossed with Californian Late Cluster x Fuggle. Does not carry the punchy aromas associated with higher Alpha hops. Pacific Gem contains a good balance of oils which constantly contributes to its aroma score. A very pleasing hop with useful bittering potential with Alpha Acids at 13 % and above. Pacific Gem fills the brew house with enticing aromas during kettle addition and has been described as producing oaken flavours with a distinct blackberry aroma. Typically used as a first hop addition and makes its presence felt through an excellent tempered bitterness and flavour. Well suited to a wide range of beer styles and lends itself well to European Lager styles of various bitterness levels.

Alpha Acids 13 – 15 %
Beta Acids 7 – 9 %
Cohumulone 37 – 40 % of Alpha Acids
Total Oil 1.2 ml oil per 100 gram cone weight
Concentration 78 uL Oil/gram Alpha
Myrcene 33.3 %
Humulene 29.9 %
Caryophyllene 11 %
Farnasene 0.3 %
Citrus-Piney Fraction 9.4 %
Floral Estery Fraction 1.8 % (Linalool 1 %)
Xanthohumol 0.6 %
Other 11.6 %

New Zealand Pacific Jade

Pacific Jade hops are best known for their incredibly rich aroma of spicy black pepper, bold citrus and herbs. Some say the spiciness is reminiscent of Saaz. Certainly a great way to round out your Pale Ale and a good up-front addition in Lagers.
Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 12.0 – 14.0%
Beta Acids: 7.0 – 8.0%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 1.5 – 2.0
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): ~24%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: ~1.4

New Zealand Wai-iti

Wai-iti hops provide wonderfully bright citrus aromatics that compliment a variety of beer styles. Expect notes of lime, lemon and mandarin oranges that would make a great addition to your Pale, IPA, or Wheat brew. Luckily we bought most of the Wai-iti hops that were available in the U.S., so try them while you can! Ballast Point made a Sculpin Double IPA cask version with Wai iti hops that was highly thought of. (General AA range 3%)

New Zealand Wakatu

A great dual purpose hop. Has a less spicy flavor than that of traditional Hallertau Mittelfrüh, and is able to retain its clean character as a beer ages because of this. It has a distinct floral character, with a slight emphasis on citrus/lime aromas. Great hop for use in Lagers, Pilsners, Bocks.  Also popular as a finishing hops in ales and IPAs.  Also known as New Zealand Hallertau Aroma.

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 6.5 – 8.5%
Beta Acids: ~8.5%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: .76 – 1
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 28 – 30%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: ~1.0
Storage(% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68° F): NA
Similar Hop Varieties: NA

Northern Brewer
Northern Brewer is a bittering-type cultivar, bred in 1934 in England from a Canterbury Golding female plant and the male plant OB21. Northern Brewer has been used in the breeding process of many newer varieties. This cultivar is grown in England, Belgium, Germany and the USA. Northern Brewer hops, when grown in Germany, are a strong flavoring hop with a wild American hop fragrance. A strong fragrant hop with a rich rough-hewn, mint-like evergreen flavor. Ideal for steam-style beers and ales. Possible Substitutions: Chinook and Nugget. Commercial Examples: Old Peculier(bittering), Anchor Liberty(bittering), Anchor Steam(bittering/flavoring/aroma)

U.S. Grown Northern Brewer:
Alpha Acids 8 – 10% w/w
Beta Acids 3 – 5% w/w
Co-Humulone 20 – 30 %of alpha acids
Storageability 70 – 85% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 1.5 – 2.0 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 50 – 60% of whole oil
Humulene 20 – 30 % of whole oil
Caryophyllene 5 – 10% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil

Northdown UK

Northdown is a first generation selection from Northern Brewer crossed with a German male resistant to downy mildew. Released in early 1970’s with relatively high alpha acids for its time. Its excellent flavor properties ensured its continued survival after the release of the higher alpha acids variety Wye Target. General Trade Perception: A true dual-purpose hop with moderate bittering potential and excellent flavor/aroma charteristics. Possible Substitutions UK Challenger, Northern Brewer. Typical Beer Styles: All Ales, Porter. 

Lupulin Moderate amounts, palish yellow Aroma Mild, pleasant and delicate hop aroma

Alpha Acid 7.5 – 9.5%
Beta Acid 5 – 5.5%
Cohumulone 24 – 30% of alpha acids
Total Oil 1.5 – 2.5 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 23 – 29% of whole oil
Humulene 40 – 45% of whole oil
Carophyllene 13 – 17% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil

General Trade Perception: A true dual-purpose hop with moderate bittering potential and excellent flavor/aroma charteristics. Possible Substitutions UK Challenger, Northern Brewer. Typical Beer Styles: All Ales, Porter


Nugget is a bittering-type cultivar, bred in 1970 from the USDA 65009 female plant and USDA 63015M. The lineage of Nugget is 5/8 Brewers Gold, 1/8 Early Green, 1/16 Canterbury Golding, 1/32 Bavarian and 5/32 unknown. Nugget hops, from Yakima, are an extremely bitter hop with a pungent, quite heavy herbal aroma. Released in 1982 and now a major high alpha acids variety in the US. Also grown in Germany. Typical Beer Styles: Ales, Stout, and Barleywine. Possible Substitutions: Galena, Magnum, Columbus, Chinook, Wye Target.

Alpha Acids 12 – 14% w/w
Beta Acids 4 – 6% w/w
Co-Humulone 24 – 30% of alpha acids
Storageability 70 – 80% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 1.7 – 2.3 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 51 – 59% of whole oil
Humulene 12 – 22% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 7 – 10% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil


A dual purpose German hop bred at the Hull Hop Research Center, Opal has been on the market since 2004. Opal hops provide a well rounded bittering quality to any brew. You can also get notes of spice, pepper, citrus and an even dispersal of fruity, floral and herbal in the aroma.  
Substitutes:  Tettanger, East Kent Goldings, Styrian Goldings
Appropriate Beer Styles:  IPA, Belgian Ales, Pilsners,Hefeweizen, Helles, Lager, Brown Ale, Saison, Tripel, Wheat, Kolsch, Blonde Ale 

Purpose   Bittering & Aroma 
Alpha Acid Composition 13%-14% 
Beta Acid Composition 3.5%-5.5% 
Co-Humulone Composition 28%-34% 
Total Oil Composition 0.8-1.3 mL/100g
Myrcene Oil Composition 30%-45% 
Humulene Oil Composition 20%-25% 
Caryophyllene Oil 9%-10%
Farnesene Oil 0%-1% 
Country Germany


This dual purpose hop is a sister of Jester, and exhibits flavors and aromas of grapefruit, mango and passionfruit. Olicana® is an English hop, originally planted in 2009  in Herefordshire/Worcestershire and released commercially in 2014.

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 7 – 9%
Beta Acids: 4 – 6%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 1.2 – 2.3
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 28 – 32%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 0.5 

Olicana® is a registered trade mark of Charles Faram & Co Limited and is from the Charles Faram Hop Development Programme.

Flavor and Aroma-Grapefruit, Mango, Passionfruit 
Alpha Acids-Average 
Use-Dual Purpose 
Total Oil Content-Low 


German bred Orion hops are most commonly used as a dual purpose brewing ingredient.  Orion Hops have a moderate alpha acid content at 8.0%-9.0% and is a dual use hop. The gratifying hoppy aroma comes from the combination of oils that are balanced with the exception of Myrcene Oil which is especially high. The co-humulone for Orion Hops borders on the low side, and is attributed to its heritage.  Orion Hops are most famous for their appearance in brews from Franskaner Brauerei, whose beers of the brands Spaten and Franziskaner.
Substitutes: Perle or Northern Brewer
Appropriate Beer Styles: Helles, Pilsners

Origin: Germany 
Type: Dual 
Alpha: 7.3% 
Beta: 3.7% 
Hop Stability Index: 17.0% per 6 mths 
Cross between Perle and an experimental variety 
Use for: Bittering and aroma 
Aroma: Pleasant, hoppy


Palisade is fairly recent American cross of Tettnager and open pollination resulting in a moderate alpha aroma hop bred by Yakima Chief Ranches. It is used for its aromatic properties and moderate bittering. It has the aroma of Fuggle and Willamette and will leave your beer with a soft and clean finish. 

Alpha acids: 5.5-9.5%
Beta acids: 6.0-8.0%
Alpha:Beta Ratio: 1.0
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids): 24-29%
Total Oil (Mls. per 100 grams): 1.4-1.6
Caryophyllene (as % of total oils): 16-18%
Farnesene (as % of total oils): 0%
Humulene (as % of total oils): 19-22%
Myrcene (as % of total oils): 9-10%
Storability is good.


Perle is a newer variety, originally from Germany but now grown quite successfully in the US. Perle is a medium alpha hop with a very clean, almost minty bitterness and pleasant foral and slightly spicy aroma. Typical Beer Styles: Pale Ale, Porter, Stout, Lager, Weizen, Alt, Barleywine, Kölsch. Possible Substitutions: German Perle, Cluster, Galena and Chinook (for U.S. Perle): German and US Northern Brewer.

U.S. Perle:
Alpha Acids 7 – 9.5% w/w
Beta Acids 4 – 5% w/w
Co-Humulone 27 – 32% of alpha acids
Storageability 80 – 85% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 0.7 – 0.9 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 45 – 55% of whole oil
Humulene 28 – 33% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 10 -12% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil


Phoenix hops are a dual purpose hop from the UK, with flavor and aromas of pine, chocolate, molassses and spice. This is most often used in English-style ales. 

Possible Substitutions: N/A 

Technical Specifications: 
Aroma: Crisp and mellow tones of pine, chocolate, molasses and spice characteristics 
Alpha Acids: 8.0 – 12.0% 
Beta Acids: 3.8 – 5.4% 
Co-Humulone: ~30% 
Total Oil: 1.2 – 2.5 mL / 100g 
Myrcene: 24% 
Humulene: 30% 
Caryophyllene: 11% 
Farnesene: 1.5%


Bred from the same lineage as First Gold and Herald, this non-dwarf hop varietal was also released by the Wye Hop Research Institute in 2000. Offering fantastic bittering and aromatic characteristics, this dual purpose hop is clearly one of the most versatile out there. It is also considered round and full bodied with classic English-style bitterness, its complex flavor and aroma have been likened to grassy herbs, grapefruit citrus, berries and pears right through to spice, cedar and honey.  
Substitutes:  Pioneer, Target or Challenger
Appropriate Beer Styles:  Bitters, Pale Ales, Porters, Brown Ales, India Pale Ale, Wheat Beer, Stout, Barley Wine, Imperial Stout

Alpha Acid 9 – 13% 
Beta Acid 4.3 – 5% 
Co-humulone 36 – 38% 
Total Oil 1.2 – 2.4 mL/100g 
Myrcene 29 – 31% of total oil 
Caryophyllene 7 – 8% of total oil 
Farnesene < 1.0% of total oil 
Humulene 16.9 – 17.1% of total oil 
Geraniol 0 – 0% of total oil


This bittering hop was bred at Wye College in the U.K. and released in 2001. It differs from other English varietals in its distinct oil balance that provides a citrusy and marmalade type quality. Pilot hops offer a sharp bitterness but also adds a crisp, clean lemon marmalade aroma with a hint of spice to any brew. 
Substitutes: Possibly Galena
Appropriate Beer Styles:   Bitters, IPAs and APAs

Alpha Acid Composition 8%-11.5% 
Beta Acid Composition 3.3%-5% 
Co-Humulone Composition 28%-37% 
Total Oil Composition  0.8-1.4 mL/100g 
Myrcene Oil Composition  30%-40%
Farnesene Oil  < 1%
Country  UK


A Wye College breed from the Wye Omega line, Pioneer hops are also a sister to Herald hops. Best known for its bold lemon and citrus notes while still offering that traditional English herbal aroma.  Pioneer has a classic English aroma and mild-tempered bittering despite its very high cohumulone levels.  It is considered more than suitable for use at any point in the brewing process.  On the palate It features clean, refreshing bittering and an aroma profile of lemon and grapefruit citrus, herbaceous essences and trailing notes of cedar.
Substitutes:  East Kent Golding
Appropriate Beer Styles:  India Pale Ale, Red Ale, Specialty Ale, Strong Bitter

Alpha Acid Composition   8%-10% 
Beta Acid Composition   3.5%-4% 
Co-Humulone Composition   36%-40% 
Total Oil Composition   1-1.8 mL/100g 
Myrcene Oil Composition   31%-36% 
Humulene Oil Composition   22%-24% 
Caryophyllene Oi   7%-8%
Farnesene Oil   0%-1%
Country  UK


Polaris is one of the new hops from Hüll in Germany, released in 2012.  It has an unusually high Alpha Acid content, sometimes exceeding 20%. It also has a super high oil content meaning it is a pungent hop. Said to have some fruit flavor, the most common reported flavor is spicy mint. The mint flavor is best described like the flavor in a glacier mint candy. You may think twice about a mint flavor in your beer, but feedback is the mintiness is not overwheming or a negative and actually adds depth.
Substitutes: None at this time
Appropriate Beer Styles:  Bitters, ESBs, Pale Ales, IPAs

Alpha Acids 18.0 – 23.0%   
Beta Acids 4.5 – 6.0%     
Co-Humulone 22 – 28%    
Total Oil 4.0 – 5.0 mL / 100g    
Myrcene ~50% of total oil 
Humulene 20 – 35% of total oil    
Caryophyllene 8 – 13% of total oil     
Farnesene < 1% of total oil    
Geraniol 0 – 0% of total oil


Like most hops of Czech origin, Premiant comes from a lineage of popular Saaz hops and was first released in 1996. Premiant has a relatively high alpha content for Czech varieties, and as a result, it has found some application as a dual purpose variety.  Premiant offers a pleasant, mild aroma of earthy floral and slight citrus notes.   It also contains an alpha acid range between about 7% and 10%, with a well rounded bitterness that is clean and not harsh, making it an ideal neutral bittering hop. 
Substitute:  Possibly Saaz
Appropriate Beer Styles: IPA, APA, or Belgian, French or German Ales

Alpha Acid 7 – 10% 
Beta Acid 3.5 – 5.5% 
Co-humulone 18 – 23% 
Total Oil 1 – 2 mL/100g 
B-Pinene 0.4 – 0.7% of total oil
Myrcene 30 – 45% of total oil 
Linalool 0.4 – 0.7% of total oil
Caryophyllene 9 – 13% of total oil
Farnesene 1 – 3% of total oil 
Humulene 25 – 40% of total oil 
Geraniol 0 – 0.1% of total oil 
Country:  Czech Republic

Pride Of Ringwood

This hop is much maligned, but when fresh it has a real spicy, fruitiness & is a great hop. The main bittering hop of Aussie beers. At time of release in 1965, it was the highest alpha acid hop in the world and went on to become more than 90% of the Australian crop- closely associated with such famous beers as Foster’s Lager. Typical Hop Use Bittering.

Pedigree Second generation from the English-Pride of Kent. Bred in Australia. Aroma Quite pronounced but not unpleasant Alpha Acid 7 – 10%
Beta Acid 4 – 6%
Cohumulone 33 – 39% of alpha acids
Total Oil 1.0 – 2.0 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 25 – 50% of whole oil
Humulene 3 – 8% of whole oil
Carophyllene 5 – 10% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil

General Trade Perception Predominantly a bittering hop but with interesting aromatic qualities. Possible Substitutions Galena, Cluster. Typical Beer Styles Australian Lagers 


Progress was intended as a replacement for British Fuggles.  It is a cross between WGV (Whitbread Golding Variety) and a wild, American male hop.   Progress was released from Wye College in 1964. It has a mild flavor paired with a strong aroma and a moderate bittering quality making it a good dual purpose hop variety.  Progress imparts a wonderfully earthy, grassy, floral aroma to a wide variety of beer styles.  
Substitutes: East Kent Golding, Fuggle
Appropriate Beer Styles: Belgian Ales, IPAs, English Ales

Alpha Acid 6 – 7.5% 
Beta Acid 2 – 2.7% 
Co-humulone 25 – 30%
Total Oil 0.5 – 0.8 mL/100g 
Myrcene 24 – 28% of total oil 
Caryophyllene 12 – 15% of total oil 
Farnesene < 1.0% of total oil
Humulene 40 – 47% of total oil 
Geraniol 0 – 0% of total oil


Raku was released from the New Zealand Hop Breeding program and was previously known as AlphaAroma.  It serves as both an aromatic and bittering hop. It has a fresh aroma of orchard fruits, apricot, and pine. Rakau contains an alpha acid range from about 10% to 12% and can be used as a bittering addition to almost any style beer.  It was initially bred in the late 1970’s from Smoothcone through open pollination but it was not released to the market until 1983.  It was re-released under the new name Rakau in 2007.  It is currently being grown and sold under its old name by Dutchess Hops of New York who planted it in the US in 2013. 
Substitute: Amarillo, Summit
Appropriate Beer Styles:  Australian Pale Ales, IPAs

Alpha Acid 10 – 11% 
Beta Acid 5 – 6% 
Co-humulone 23 – 25% 
Total Oil 2.2 – 2.2 mL/100g
Myrcene 56 – 56% of total oil 
Caryophyllene 5.2 – 5.2% of total oil 
Farnesene 4.5 – 4.5% of total oil 
Humulene 16.3 – 16.3% of total oil 
Geraniol 0 – 0% of total oil

Released by the Hort Research Center in 1997 and formerly known as D Saaz, this New Zealand varietal of Saaz parentage is primarily used as an aroma hop.   Riwaka’s abundant oil content is nearly twice that of its parent variety Saaz. This unique oil balance alongside a near 1:1 ratio of alpha to beta acids makes Riwaka hops unique and offers a striking grapefruit and citrus character.   With an alpha acid range of about 4.5% to 6.5%, and a beta acid range of 4% to 5% keeps bittering useage minimal but balanced. Riwaka is commonly used as a late addition in a brew.
Substitutes: Czech Saaz
Appropriate Beer Styles:  Pale Ales, Pilsners and IPAs

Aroma: Specific aroma descriptors include powerfully fueled tropical passion fruit with grapefruit and citrus characters
Alpha Acid 4.5 – 6.5% 
Beta Acid 4 – 5% 
Co-humulone 31 – 33% 
Total Oil 1.4 – 1.6 mL/100g 
Myrcene 67 – 69% of total oil 
Caryophyllene 3.9 – 4.1% of total oil 
Farnesene < 1.0% of total oil 
Humulene 8.9 – 9.1% of total oil 
Geraniol 0 – 0% of total 


Bred in Germany from the English Northern Brewer variety. Saaz is the classical “noble” aroma hop with long and strong traditions. Associated with the renowned Pilsener Lager. Extremely popular with the craft-brewing industry. Saaz is famous for its cinnamon-spicy, earthy flavors. It has clean bitterness. Possible Substitutions: For Czech Saaz: U.S. Saaz, Polish Lublin For U.S. Saaz: German Perle, German and US Northern Brewer. Commercial Example: Pilsener Urquell.

U.S. Saaz:
Alpha Acids 7 – 9.5% w/w
Beta Acids 4 – 5% w/w
Co-Humulone 27 – 32% of alpha acids
Storageability 80 – 85% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 0.7 – 0.9 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 45 – 55% of whole oil
Humulene 28 – 33% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 10 -12% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil


Santium is a triploid aroma selection using a diploid Tettnang clone and a tetraploid Hallertauer. It was released in 1997. A newly developed American aroma hop that contains noble hop characteristics. While the original Tettnanger variety can be grown here in the US, it does not yield as well as in Germany. Santiam yields twice as much as Tettnanger when grown in Oregon, Washington and Idaho, the prime hop-growing areas in the U.S. Santiam is also the world’s first naturally seedless Tettnang-type hop. Brewers want seedless hops because seeds can add undesired oils to beer. Brewers will find this as an excellent replacement of German Tettnang. Possible Substitutions: German Tettnang, German Spalt, German Spalter Select. Typical Beer Styles: Lager, US Ales, Pilsner, Belgian Tripel and other Belgian-Styles, Kvlsch, Bock, Munich Helles.

Alpha Acids: 5 – 7%
Beta Acids: 6 – 8%
Cohumulone: 22 – 24% of alpha acids
Storageability: Average
Total Oil: 1.3 – 1.5 mls/100 grams
Myrcene: 27 – 36% of whole oil
Humulene: 23 – 26% of whole oil
Carophyllene: 7 – 8% of whole oil
Farnesene: 13 – 16% of whole oil

Saphir (Sapphire)

Brewing Usage: Aroma   The aroma is a distinct spicy, fruit and citrus (tangerine) notes.  Possible Substitutions Hallertau   Typical Beer Styles: Belgian-style Ales, Plisners, German lagers, Belgian whites. 
Alpha Acids 2.0 – 4.5%   Beta Acids 4.0 – 7.0%   Co-Humulone 12 – 17%   Total Oil 0.8 – 1.4 mL / 100g   Myrcene 25 – 40% of total oil     Humulene 20 – 30% of total oil   Caryophyllene 9 – 14% of total oil   Farnesene < 1% of total oil  

Additional Information: Released in 2002 from the Hop Research Center in Hull, Germany.  A new(ish) breed of hop that is starting to replace the Hallertauer Mittlefrüh variety, which has become more and more susceptible to disease and pests. Shares many of the Hallertauer Mittlefrüh characteristics and is very well suited as an aroma hop with a distinct hoppy tang.


Satus is a bittering-type cultivar of recent origin. Used for its bittering and aromatic properties – similar to Galena.

Alpha acids: 12.5 – 14.0%
Beta acids: 8.5-9.0%
Alpha:Beta Ratio: 1.5 Cohumulone (% of alpha acids): 32-35%
Total Oil (Mls. per 100 grams): 1.5-2.8
Caryophyllene (as % of total oils): 7-10%
Farnesene (as % of total oils): 0%
Humulene (as % of total oils): 15-20%
Myrcene (as % of total oils): 40-45%
Storability is fair to good. 


Simcoe is a bittering/aroma type cultivar bred by Yakima Chief Ranches. Used for its very unique, pine-like aromatics and especially for its bittering properties due to its low cohumulone content. Also described as “cascade on steroids”. Some describe the aroma as that of apricots or passionfruit. Used to make American Ales, especially IPAs.

Alpha Acids 12 – 14% w/w
Beta Acids 4 – 5% w/w
Co-Humulone 15 – 20% of alpha acids
Storageability Good
Total Oil 2 – 2.5 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 60 -65% of whole oil
Humulene 10 – 15% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 5 – 8% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil

Sorachi Ace 

Sorachi Ace has a unique lemony and slight dill aroma. It was developed in Japan at Sapporo Breweries. An extremely unique high alpha aroma variety with great bittering characteristics. Good for typical beer styles such as Belgian wit, IPA, pale ale, and Belgian saison. 

Possible Substitutions: n/a 

Technical Specifications: 
Aroma: lemon, slight dill 
Alpha Acids: 13 – 16% 
Beta Acids: 6.0 -7.0% 
Co-Humulone 23% 
Total Oil: 2.0 – 2.8 ml/100g 
Myrcene: n/a 
Humulene: n/a 
Caryophyllene: n/a 
Farnesene: n/a

Southern Passion

Southern Passion is a South African bred aroma hop whose pedigree is a diploid seedling originating from Saaz and Hallertauer crossing.  The aroma profile includes passion fruit, guava, red berries, melon, calendula, and grapefruit – unique.  Southern Passion works well with a variety of beer styles including lightly hopped session beers, and all hop-forward beers of American and Belgian origins such as pale ales, IPAs and Saisons.

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 5 – 11.2%
Beta Acids: 7 – 8.0%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: .63 – 1.6
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 16.6 – 20.2%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 0.7 – 1.3

Origin-South Africa 
Flavor and Aroma-Passion Fruit, Guava, Red Berries, Melon, Grapefruit 
Alpha Acids-Average 
Use-Dual Purpose 
Total Oil Content-Low 


Spalt Hops, also called Spalter, is a natural variety originating from Spalt, Germany. This variety has a great tradition in German brewing and has also made an impact around the world. It is a part of the Saaz family of hops. Spalt is sought after for German-style Lagers, Helles, Pilsners and others. Spalt is a parent of Spalt Select which was bred to produce higher yields.

Spalt is an aroma hop with a low alpha acid content at 4.0%-5.0% and a 1:1 alpha beta ratio. This hop variety is classified among the noble varieties because of its low co-humulone content. It resembles Tettnanger. Spalt has an abundance of all of the essential oils including farnesene which is barely traceable in many hop varieties. The lupulin from Spalt is a pale yellow, and the hop provides a signature aroma of zesty spice that is temperate and not overbearing. It is suitable throughout the boil and for dry-hopping German strongholds including Kolsch, Alts, Bocks, and the styles mentioned above.

Spalt hops is only grown in the Spalt, Germany region, and in limited quality. Its available on the markets, and is a part of beers found around the world. The small tight cones are harvested early to mid season after a vigorous growing cycle. Spalt Hops is tolerant to verticillium wilt as well as downy mildew which gives it a leg up in today’s day and age of hop horticulture.

Alpha Acids: 2.5-6 %
Beta Acids: 3-5 %
Cohumulone: 22-29 %
Myrcene: 20-35 %
Humulene: 20-30 %
Caryophyllene: 8-13 %
Farnesene: 12-18 %
Total Oil: 0.5-0.9 %
Storage (%AA/6 M/20 C): 45-60 

Spalt Select

Spalt Select was bred as a cross between Spalt and Hallertauer Mittlefrüh by the Hops Research Institute in Hull, Germany. It originated in the late 80’s and was bred to replace the Spalt variety by providing stronger growing characteristics, which is evident in its higher yield.

Spalt Select is classified as a noble variety due to its low co-humulone content. It has a low alpha acid rating at 3.5%-5.5% and is considered an aroma hop variety. The fragrance is mild and closely resembles Spalt with a slight spiciness. It has been compared to Saaz and is ideal for use in Lagers, Pilsners, and other German-Style beers.

Spalt Select yields 1602-1780 lbs.acre and carries tolerance to Verticillium Wilt as well as Downy Mildew. Spalt, Tettnanger, and Saaz hops are all suitable substitutes, however Spalt Select is readily available.

Luplin Fair amount pale yellow in color
Aroma Mild and pleasant, slightly spicy
Alpha Acids 4.0 – 5.0% w/w
Beta Acids 4.0 – 5.0% w/w
Co-Humulone 25 – 28% of alpha acids
Storageability 50 – 60% of alpha acids after six months at 20º C
Total Oil 0.5 – 1.1 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 10 – 20% of whole oil
Humulene 20 – 30% of whole oil
Caryphyllene 12- 17% of whole oil
Farnesene 12- 17% of whole oil


Sterling is an aroma cultivar, a diploid seedling made in 1990 with a 21522 female plant and a 21361 male plant. Its parentage is 1/2 Saazer, 1/4 Cascade, 1/8 64035M (unknown German aroma X open pollination), 1/16 Brewers Gold, 1/32 Early Green, and 1/32 unknown. Aromas are fine, rustic, earthy, and spicy, similar to Saaz. Character between Saaz and Mt. Hood, gaining favor as a Saaz replacement. Typical Beer Styles: Pilsner and other Lagers, Ales and Belgian-Style Ales. Possible Substitutions: Czech Saaz

Alpha acids: 4.5-5.0%
Beta acids: 5.0-6.0%
Alpha:Beta Ratio: 0.8 
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids): 21-23%
Total Oil (Mls. per 100 grams): 0.6-1.0
Caryophyllene (as % of total oils): 20-22%
Farnesene (as % of total oils): 13-15%
Humulene (as % of total oils): 6-8%
Myrcene (as % of total oils): 44-48%

French Strisselspalt

Strisselspalt is a major aroma hop grown in the Alsace area of France near Strasbourg. Well accepted as good aroma hop around the world. Similar to Hersbruck in profile but preferred by some breweries. Very mild, with aromas of black currant. It is a classic hop choice for Belgian and French farmhouse ales. Possible Substitutions: Mt Hood, Crystal, Hersbruck. Typical Beer Styles: Pilsner, Lager, Wheat, Farmhouse ales.

Alpha Acids: 3 – 5%
Beta Acids: 3 – 5.5%
Cohumulone: 20 – 25% of alpha acids
Storageability: 60 – 70% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 20°C (68°F).
Total Oil; 0.6 – 0.9 mls/100 grams
Myrcene: 20 – 30% of whole oil
Humulene: 15 – 25% of whole oil
Carophyllene: 8 – 10% of whole oil
Farnesene: <1% of whole oil

Styrian Goldings

A seedless version of Fuggles grown in Slovenia Use for: Bittering, finishing for a wide variety of European Beers. A world-renowned aroma hop with widespread usage in both Ale and Lager brewing. The old traditional favorite of Slovenia. Also well-established in English brewing as Fuggle. Used in English Style Ale, ESB, and Lager. Possible Substitutions would be U.S. Fuggle, Willamette, or UK Fuggle. 

Alpha acid 4.0%
Aroma: Similar to Fuggles: Mild, soft, grassy, floral aroma Substitutes: Fuggles Williamete
Origin: Slovenia
Type: Aroma
Alpha: 5.4%
Beta: 2.9%

Styrian Wolf

Wolf is one of the latest Styrian hops on the market and it’s an absolute hit! Developed by the Slovenian Institute for Hop Research and Brewing, this dual purpose hop exhibits intense fruity and floral notes, with flavors of sweet tropical fruits, and aromas of mango, elderflower and a touch of violet. 

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 13 – 18% 
Beta Acids: 5 – 6% 
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 2.1 – 3.6 
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 22 – 23% 
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 3.0 – 4.5

Flavor and Aroma-Mango, Passionfruit, Lemongrass 
Alpha Acids-High 
Use-Dual Purpose 
Total Oil Content-High 


Summer is a unique seedless aroma hop developed and grown in Australia. Summer provides distinctive light apricot and melon fruit notes nicely balanced by a background hop character which can be used to great effect in many beer styles. 

Possible Substitutions: Unknown 

Technical Specifications: 
Aroma: light apricot, melon fruit 
Alpha Acids: 5.9% 
Beta Acids: 4.8 – 6.1% 
Co-Humulone 22.5 – 25% 
Total Oil: 0.9 – 1.3 ml/100g 
Myrcene: 5 – 13% 
Humulene: 42 – 46% 
Caryophyllene: 14 – 15% 
Farnesene: .1%


Summit boasts high alpha acid values. Summit is a dwarf variety grown using a low-trellis system. Dwarf hops are picked gently in the field unlike their taller cousins, which must be cut and transported. Dwarf varieties are of the highest quality. Recent trials have discovered strong orange and tangerine citrus notes in this hop’s flavor. Ideally suited for brewing American style IPAs and Double IPAs, Summit is an excellent bittering hop. 

Possible Substitutions: Columbus, Warrior 

Technical Specifications: 
Aroma: floral, tangerine, orange, grapefruit 
Alpha Acids: 17 – 20% 
Beta Acids: 3.3 – 6.0% 
Co-Humulone 26 – 33% 
Total Oil: 1.5 – 2.5 ml/100g 
Myrcene: 30 – 50% 
Humulene: 15 – 25% 
Caryophyllene: 10 – 15% 
Farnesene: < 1%


Released by Washington State University in 2013, Tahoma is one of three new public varieties to come to market. It retains the very low cohumulone characteristic of Glacier but displays slightly high alpha acid content. Tahoma is considered to be “Cascade-like” with a pleasant and predominantly citrus aroma profile.

Aroma: Specific aroma descriptors include lemon, grapefruit, cedar, pine, spice and pepper.
Alpha Acid 6 – 7.5% 
Beta Acid 7 – 8% 
Co-humulone 15 – 17% 
Total Oil 1.5 – 2 mL/100g 
B-Pinene 0.8 – 1.2% of total oil 
Myrcene 55 – 65% of total oil
Linalool 0.4 – 0.8% of total oil 
Caryophyllene 3 – 5% of total oil 
Farnesene < 1.0% of total oil 
Humulene 8 – 12% of total oil 
Geraniol 0.1 – 0.1% of total oil


Target is a good high alpha variety with an acceptable to desirable kettle hop aroma. Presently, it is the predominant UK variety, widely used for its high alpha acid content combined with an acceptable aroma. This is a good hop for all ales and lagers. 

Possible Substitutions: Fuggle, Willamette 

Technical Specifications: 
Aroma: strong herbal 
Alpha Acids: 10 – 12% 
Beta Acids: 5 – 5.5% 
Co-Humulone: 29 – 35% 
Total Oil: 1.6 – 2.6 ml/100g 
Myrcene: 45 – 55% 
Humulene: 17 – 22% 
Caryophyllene: 8 – 10% 
Farnesene: < 1%


Tettnang is an aroma-type cultivar which originated in the Tettnang hop growing area of Germany as a land-race hop. It is grown in the U.S.A. in Oregon and Washington State. It is ideal for your finest lagers and wheat beers. This hop has a fine, pure aroma, that is not present in United States grown Tettnanger. Commercial Examples: Gulpner Pilsener, Sam Adams Octoberfest, and Anderson Valley ESB. U.S. Tettnang shown to be similiar to Fuggle.  

German Tettnang

Possible Substitutions: German Spalt, German Spalter Select, U.S. Tettnang, Saaz
Luplin Moderate amount, golden yellow
Aroma Mild and pleasant, slightly spicy, herbal, traditional, very fine or noble aroma hop
Alpha Acids 3.0 – 4.5% w/w
Beta Acids 3.0 – 4.5% w/w
Co-Humulone 25 – 29% of alpha acids
Storageability 55 – 60% of alpha acids after six months at 20º C
Total Oil 0.6 – 1.0 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 15 – 25% of whole oil
Humulene 20 – 30% of whole oil
Caryphyllene 6 – 13% of whole oil
Farnesene 13 – 19% of whole oil

US Tettnang 

Possible Substitutions German Spalt Select, German Spalt, Santiam.
Luplin Moderate amount, pale yellow
Aroma Very fine and slightly spicy
Alpha Acids 4.0 – 5.0% w/w
Beta Acids 3.0 – 4.0% w/w
Co-Humulone 20 – 25% of alpha acids
Storageability 55 – 60% of alpha acidd after six months storage at 20ºC.
Total Oil 0.4 – 0.8 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 36 – 45% of whole oil
Humulene 18 – 23% of whole oil
Caryphyllene 6 – 7% of whole oil
Farnesene 5 – 8% of whole oil


Also known as Hallertauer, German Tradition, or Traditional, these hops were bred from a cross of Hallertauer Mittelfruh, Gold, and Saaz at the Hull Hop Institute and registered in 1993. Used primarily as an aromatic hop in brews, Tradition also imparts a crisp bite of flavor from its unique lineage. Tradition hops generally have an alpha acid range of about 5% to 7%, and can offer a pleasing balance of bitterness and crisp floral, herbal aromas.   
Substitutes: Hallertauer Mittelfruh, Liberty
Appropriate Beer Styles: German Ales, Pilsners and Hefeweizens

Aroma: floral, herbal 
Alpha Acids: 5 – 7% 
Beta Acids: 4 – 5% 
Co-Humulone: 26 – 29% 
Total Oil: 1.0 – 1.4 ml/100g 
Myrcene: 20 – 25% 
Humulene: 45 – 55% 
Caryophyllene: 10 – 15% 
Farnesene: < 1%

Triple Pearl

One of the newest hops out of Washington’s Yakima Valley, Triple Pearl hops are the product of an open pollination between Pearle and an unknown male with lineage from Northern Brewer and Hallertau. This combination presents the opportunity for a dual purpose brewing ingredient, though it has predominantly been used for aromatic characteristics in early testing. From Draft Magazine: “Classic orange notes blend with lime and honeydew in the aroma. Sweet orange peel, line zest, pepper and pine dominate the flavor”.  With an alpha acid range of 10.3% to 11.2%, Triple Pearl is a smooth, mild bittering hop.  What really comes through is a balanced aroma of melon, citrus, resin, and peppery spice that pairs well with Wheats. 
Substitutes: Perle
Appropriate Beer Styles: IPAs and Pale Ales, Wheat Beers

Alpha Acid 10.3 – 11.2% 
Beta Acid 3.3 – 4.2% 
Total Oil 1.1 – 1.8 mL/100g 
Caryophyllene 3 – 5% of total oil 
Humulene 7 – 11% of total oil 
Geraniol 0 – 0% of total oilUltra

Ultra is a triploid aroma-type cultivar, originated in 1983 from a cross between the colchicine-induced tetraploid Hallertau mf (USDA 21397) and the diploid Saazer-derived male genotype (USDA 21237m). Ultra is the half-sister to Mt. Hood, Liberty and Crystal. Its genetic composition is 4/6 Hallertau mf, 1/6 Saazer, and 1/6 unknown. This cultivar was released for commercial production in March, 1995. It has a peppery, spicy aroma similar to Saaz and Hallertau. Substitutes: Crystal, Saaz, Tettnanger.

Alpha acids: 4.5-5%
Beta acids: 3.6-4.7%
Alpha:Beta Ratio: 1.1 
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids): 25-30%
Total Oil (Mls. per 100 grams): 0.8-1.2
Caryophyllene (as % of total oils): 10-15%
Farnesene (as % of total oils): 0%
Humulene (as % of total oils): 30-40%
Myrcene (as % of total oils): 25-35%
Storability is poor to fair.


Vanguard is a diploid seedling made in 1982 between USDA 21285, which has Hallertau mf parentage and USDA 64037m. It was released for cultivation in 1997. Used for its aromatic properties-slightly flowery and mild, low cohumulone similar to the Hallertau mf cultivar. Typical Beer Styles: Lager, Pilsner, Bock, Kölsch, Wheat, Munich Helles, Belgian-Style Ales. Possible Substitutions: Hallertau, German Hersbrucker, Mt Hood, Liberty.

Alpha acids: 5.0-6.0%
Beta acids: 5.0-7.0%
Alpha:Beta Ratio: 1.0
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids): 15-20%
Total Oil (Mls. per 100 grams): 0.8-1.2
Caryophyllene (as % of total oils): 10-15%
Farnesene (as % of total oils): 0.5%
Humulene (as % of total oils): 43%
Myrcene (as % of total oils): 20%
Storability is good. 

Vic Secret™

Sometimes called Victoria, this hop saw its first commercial production in 2013.  Vic Secret™ is lighter and less dominant than Galaxy™, but with a clean passionfruit and pineapple flavor and a light background of herbs and piney resin.  These notes are best accessed by dry hopping or whirlpool additions.  Late kettle additions have been found to impart a pleasant earthy character, but little fruit.  
Substitutes: Galaxy
Appropriate Beer Styles: Pale Ales, Stouts, Porters and IPAs

Alpha acids (%) 14.0 – 17.0
Beta acids (%) 6.1 – 7.8
Alpha/Beta Ratio 2.0 – 2.6
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids) 51 – 56
Total Oils (ml/10 0g) 2.2 – 2.8
Oil Concentration (microliters of oil/g alpha) 129 – 200


Waimea is a triploid cultivar released from The New Zealand Institute for Plant &  Food Research Limited’s Motueka Research Centre in 2012.   Its parentage traces back to Pacific Jade, Saazer and Fuggle.   Waimea’s typically high alpha acid levels give it considerable bittering potential, but it is most prized for its high oil content (particularly myrcene), low cohumulone, and aromatic impact from fresh tangelo citrus fruit, and pine needles.  Waimea is well suited to dual purpose applications from early kettle additions right through to dry hopping.  Waimea is suitable across a wide range of styles, from dry-hopping IPAs to bold bittering. It is even been praised for the way it can meld with the crisp, smooth profile of an imperial lager. 
Substitutes:  Other New Zealand Pacific Jade Varieties
Apporpriate Beer Styles: Pale Ales, IPAs, Hoppy Lagers

Alpha Acids  16-19%
Beta Acids  7-9%
Cohumulone  22-24% of Alpha Acids
Total Oil  2.1 ml oil per 100gm cone weight
Concentration126 uL Oil/gram Alpha 
Mycene 60%
Humulene 9.5%
Caryophyllene 2.6%
Farnesene 5%
Citrus-Piney Fraction 6.2%
Floral Estery Fraction 2.1%
H/C Ratio 3.7

Warrior® Brand YCR 5

Warrior® hops are a high alpha varietal with an incredibly smooth bittering agent. Though not typically used for their aromatic qualities, Warrior® hops can add mild notes or resin, citrus and herbs to your IPA or Pale Ale recipe.

Typical Beer Styles: Pale Ale, IPA. 

Lupulin Bright yellow
Aroma Very mild
Alpha Acids 15 – 17% w/w
Beta Acids 4.5 – 5.5% w/w
Co-Humulone 24 – 26% of alpha acids
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 1.0 – 2.0
Storage (% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68° F): ~76%
Total Oil 1.0 – 2.0 mls/100 grams
Myrcene 40 – 50% of whole oil
Humulene 15 – 20% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 8 – 10% of whole oil
Farnesene <1% of whole oil

Similar Hop Varieties / Possible Substitutions: Nugget, Columbus, Magnum

Warrior® is a registered trademark owned by Yakima Chief Hops, LLC.


Willamette is a triploid aroma-type hop, which originated in the mid 1970’s and is a seedling of Fuggle. It is a very popular aroma hop with a fragrant mild, grassy, floral, slightly spicy woody aroma. A variation on English Fuggle hops grown in Oregon and Washington. It has a character similar to Fuggle, but is more fruity and has some floral notes. An excellent American aromatic hops for ales and lagers. Typical Beer Styles: All English-style Ales, and US Pale and Brown Ales. Possible Substitutions: US Fuggle, US Tettnang, Styrian Golding.

Lupulin Moderate amount, golden yellow in color
Aroma Mild and pleasant, slightly spicy
Alpha Acids 4.0 – 6.0% w/w
Beta Acids 3.0 – 4.0% w/w
Co-Humulone 30 -35% of alpha acids
Storageability 60 – 65% alpha acids after 6 months storage at 20º C
Total Oil 1.0 – 1.5% mls/100 grams
Myrcene 45 – 55% of whole oil
Humulene 20 – 30% of whole oil
Caryophyllene 7 – 8% of whole oil
Farnesene 5 – 6% of whole oil

Yakima Gold

Released from the Washington State University hop breeding program in 2013. A diploid cross between Early Cluster and a Slovenian male. This is not a Golding as the name implies.  Yakima Gold is an excellent all-purpose hop with smooth balanced bittering and pleasant aromas.  Very high oil levels and composition make this a very unusual all purpose hop.  With a pleasant, Saaz like aroma of spice and floral notes 
Substitutes: Early Cluster or Saaz
Appropriate Beer Styles: Dark Ales, IPAs and Lagers

Aroma: Well-balanced aroma profile with pleasant notes similar to Clusters  and Willamette
Alpha acids: 8.8-10.5%. 
Betas: 4.3-5.0%, 
Cohumulone 21-23%, 
Total oils: 1.9-2.3ml/100g, 
Myrcene 45-50%, 
Humulene 21-25%, 
Caryophyllene 6.4-8%, 
Farnesene 9-10%


Named after Rock and Roll Hall of Famer, Frank Zappa, this neomexicanus breed was first found in the mountains of New Mexico and later developed by CLS Farms. As wild and free as the music Frank composed, Zappa™ hops are tough to nail down with any singular description. Tropical fruit, pine, and citrus first come to mind, but descriptors such as passionfruit, mint, fresh, purple, savory, impulsive, and fruity pebbles have also been used in an attempt to capture the essence of Zappa™. Use for aroma, whirlpool, and dry hopping additions. Highly recommended for fruit-forward styles like hazy or milkshake IPAs, as well as fruited sours, pale ales, and wild or mixed-fermentation beers. 

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 6-8%
Beta Acids: 8-9%
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 0.6 – 1.0
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 40-45%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 1.8 – 2.5%


Zythos is a new “IPA style” hop blend created to optimize and exceed the aroma characteristics of the traditional, and sometimes hard to get, IPA hops. Hopunion had a team of professional hop sniffers blending combinations of hops. This is a perfect hop for West Coast style hoppy Pale Ales and IPA’s. So what are the flavors?  Will Harrison of Hopunion who led the team that developed the Zythos hop blend has this to say “I get lots of citrus and tropical fruit notes. The hop was blended to get a little of everything in one pellet. We went for citrus, tropical, pine, and spicy as the main flavors in that order. It also has some experimental varieties to make it more complex”.

Experimental hops come from breeding programs and are available to Hopunion but not yet available to the public. So if you choose this blend you will be tasting into the future of IPA hops! Sign us up, our fermenters are already bubbling.

Hop Statistics:
Alpha Acids: 10.0 – 12.5%
Beta Acids: 4.7 – 6.2
Alpha-Beta Ratio: 2.1
Cohumulone: (% of alpha acids): 28 – 31%
Total Oils in mls per 100 grams dried: 0.7 – 1.2
Storage(% alpha acids remaining after 6 months storage at 68° F): 70%
Similar Hop Varieties: Simcoe, Amarillo

Information for the hops section was adapted from manufacturer’s websites, as well as various online suppliers websites.

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